Silicones and film formers to avoid that are NON WATER SOLUBLE or not completely water soluble: -Acrylates Copolymer -Amodimethicone -Behenoxy Dimethicone -Behenoxy Dimethicone Cetearyl methicone -Bis-Aminopropyl Dimethicone -Bis-Cetearyl Amodimethicone -Bis-Hydroxy/Methoxy Amodimethicone -Bis-Phenylpropyl Dimethicone -Cetearyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer -Cetearyl Methicone -Cetyl Dimethicone -Cyclomethicone -Cyclopentasiloxane -Dimethicone -Dimethicone/Vinyldimethicone Crosspolymer -Dimethiconol -Divynildimethicone/Dimethicone Copolymer -Di-Isostearoyl Trimethylolpropane Siloxy Silicate -Diphenyl Dimethicone -Disiloxane -Hexamethyldisiloxane -PCA Dimethicone -Phenyl Trimethicone -Polysilicone-18 Cetyl Phosphate -Silicone Resin Spheres -Simethicone Stearoxy (or Stearyl) Dimethicone -Stearoxy Dimethicone -Stearyl Dimethicone -Trimethylsiloxysilicate -Trimethylsilylamodimethicone -Trisiloxane
Special case silicones: -Amodimethicone: A polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself. -Bis-Aminopropyl Dimethicone: A polymer type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself. Only experience will tell how it works in your hair. -Cyclomethicone: Not water soluble. Added to help other ingredients spread evenly, then evaporate, but still leaves a residue on the hair. -Cyclopentasiloxane: Not water soluble. Added to help other ingredients spread evenly, then evaporate, but still leaves a residue on the hair. -Dimethicone Propyl PG-Betaine: an amphoteric silicone-surfactant combination ingredient. It bonds to the hair for conditioning and to prevent artificial color from fading and is water-dispersible. It can weigh hair down, and separate surfactants are usually needed to remove it. -Hexamethyldisiloxane: Not water soluble. Added to help other ingredients spread evenly, then evaporate, but still leaves a residue on the hair. -Trimethyl Silylamodimethicone: a polymer type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
These are Preservatives, not silicones: -5-Bromo-5-Nitro-1,3-Dioxane -Isododecane -Isohexadecane -Methychloroisothiazolinone -Methylisothiazolinone
Waxes and Oils to avoid: -Bees wax -Candelilla wax -Mineral oil (paraffinum liquidum) -Petrolatum
An aerosol formulation consists of two components: the product concentrate and the propellant. The product concentrate is the active drug combined with additional ingredients or co-solvents required to make a stable and efficacious product. The concentrate can be a solution, suspension, emulsion, semisolid, or powder. The propellant provides the force that expels the product concentrate from the container and additionally is responsible for the delivery of the formulation in the proper form (i.e., spray, foam, semisolid). When the propellant is a liquefied gas or a mixture of liquefied gases, it can also serve as the solvent or vehicle for the product concentrate. If the product characteristics are to change on dispensing, additional energy in the form of a mechanical breakup system may be required.
Propellants A propellant is a chemical with a vapor pressure greater than atmospheric pressure at 40°C (105°F). Types of propellants commonly used in pharmaceutical aerosols include chlorofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, and compressed gases.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants For many years, the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants P-11, P-12, and P-114 were used in aerosol products. Their use has been severely curtailed due to their role in depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere. Since January 1996, worldwide production of these CFCs has been reduced to only the amount needed for aerosols used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alternatives to P-12 (i.e., P-134a and P-227) have now been developed and are being incorporated in aerosol formulations. Currently, there are not alternatives for P-11 and P-114. Small amounts of P-11 are required in most aerosol suspensions to make a slurry of the active drug and other ingredients. It also is used to dissolve surfactants in some formulations. P-11, P-12, and P-114 are the CFCs of choice for oral, nasal, and inhalation aerosols. These particular chlorofluorocarbon propellants are well accepted due to their relatively low toxicity and inflammability. The chlorofluorocarbons as a class are inert but P-11 is subject to hydrolysis and will form hydrochloric acid in the presence of water. The acid increases the corrosion of the container and may be irritating when applied to membranes. If water is present, P-12 or a mixture of P-12 and P-114 are used. The CFCs are gases at room temperature that can be liquefied by cooling them below their boiling point or by compressing them at room temperature. For example, dichlorodifluoromethane (P-12) will form a liquid when cooled to -21.6°F or when compressed to 84.9 psia at 70°F (psia = pounds per square inch absolute). These liquefied gases also have a very large expansion ratio compared to the compressed gases (e.g., nitrogen, carbon dioxide). The usual expansion ratio for liquefied gases is about 1 to 240 which means that 1 mL of liquefied gas will occupy a volume of approximately 240 mL if allowed to vaporize. Compressed gases have an expansion ratio of about 3 to 10.