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Cosmetology Terms

This Glossary lists words and terms used in practical cosmetology. In almost every instanct the definitions refer to how the word is used in the field of cosmetology.
A
abarticulation—in anatomy, that species of articulation or structure of joints which admits manifest motion.
abbreviated—A shortened, reduced or briefer form.
abdomen—the belly; between the thorax and the pelvis.
abducent nerve—a motor nerve supplying the small muscles of the eye.
abductor—a muscle that draws a part of the body away from the axis line.
ability quota or stale of being able to perform. abnormal unusual; contrary to natural law or normal order.
abrasion—a scraping injury to the skin. abscess a hollow space containing pus. absorb—to engulf, suck up or take in. absorption—taking up or assimilation of one sub stance by another.
acceleration—an increase in rapidity. accelerator—any agent or machine which increases rapidity of action.
accent in hair tinting: color used to highlight or add to color tone.
accessory nerve eleventh cranial nerve; affects the mastoid and muscles of the neck.
acetic acid—a colorless solution that is the chief acid of vinegar.
acetone—a colorless, inflammable volatile liquid, used as a nail enamel remover.
acid—chemical compound containing hydrogen ions that reacts with a base to form a salt; having a pH of less than 7.
acid rinse—a mixture of water and lemon juice or vinegar.
acne—inflammation of the sebaceous gland causing skin pustules.
acne albida—whitehead.
acne cream a facial cream containing medicsments such as benzoin, boric acid, zinc oxide and calamine.
acne hypertrophica—pimples in which the lesions leave scars after healing.
acne keratosa—an eruption of papules consisting of horny plugs projecting from the hair follicles.
acne punctata—acne appearing as red papules in which are usually found blackheads.
acne pustulosa—acne in which the pustular lesions predominate.
acne rosacea—a form of acne due to congestion, in which the capillaries become dilated and sometimes broken.
acoustic nerve—eighth cranial nerve controlling
the sense of hearing.
acrolein—a light volatile oily liquid giving off irritation vapor.
actinic relating to the radiant energy of the chemically active rays of the spectrum.
activator—any agent, instrument, chemical, or device which induces action in an otherwise dormant substance.
activator machine (facials)—cleanses, stimulates, and helps firm the skin.
acute—severe symptoms; having a short course; not chronic.
adenoma sebaceum—small tumor originating in the sebaceous glands.
adhere—to remain in contact; to unite.
adhesive a sticky substance that tends to adhere to others.
adipose tissue—fatty tissue.
adjust—to make exact; to fit.
adolescence—state or process of growing from childhood to manhood or womanhood.
adrenal—an endocrine gland situated on the top of the kidneys.
adult—grown up to full age or size.
adulterate to alter, or to make impure by the addition of a foreign substance.
aeration—airing; saturating a fluid with air, carbon dioxide or other gas.
afferent nerves convey stimulus from the external organs to the brain.
affinity—the force which impels certain atoms to unite with certain others to form compounds.
Afro styling—cutting and styling extremely curly (kinky) hair following its natural tendencies and according to its condition. ssi as to fit the head contour, facial structure and features.
afterrinse—a product used after a hair treatment for special purposes such as making hair easy to comb.
agent—an active power which can produce a physical or chemical effect.
agnail—hangnail.
alae nasi—the wing cartilage of the nose.
albinism—absence of pigment in the skin and its appendages.
albino—a person with very little or no pigment in the skin or hair.
alcohol—a readily evaporating colorless liquid. powerful stimulant, and antiseptic.
alimentary—the alimentary canal extends from the month to the anus.
alkali—the hydroxide of a metal; a substance having marked properties of a base (see base); opposite to acid.
alkaline—having the properties of an alkali; having a pH of more than 7.
allergic—sensitive to certain substances so as to cause an unpleasant reaction.
allergy—a disorder due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods or chemicals.
allergy test a test to determine the existence or non existence of extreme sensitivity to certain things, foods, or chemicals, etc., which do not adversely affect most individuals. Sometimes referred to as predisposition test, patch test, or skin test.
alopecia baldness.
alopecia adnata baldness at birth. alopecia areata—baldness in spots.
alopecia dynamica—loss of hair due to destruction of the hair follicle.
alopecia follicularis—loss of hair due to inflamed hair follicles.
alopecia localis—loss of hair occurring at the site of an injury.
alopecia maligna—any form of alopecia that is severe and persistent.
alopecia prematura—baldness beginning before middle age.
alopecia seborrheica baldness caused by diseased sebaceous glands.
alopecia senilis—baldness occurring in old age.
alum sulphate of potassium and aluminum; used usa styptic.
alveola a small hollow; branch of the internal maxillary artery.
amino acid—an organic acid, molecules of which combine into long chains to lorm proteins.
amino dye a synthetic organic chemical dye; also called aniline dye, or coal-tar dye.
ammonia a colorless gas with a putigent odor; soluble in water to form ammonium hydroxide (ammonia water).
ammonium hydroxide—a chemical formed from ammonia which is used to make ammonium thioglycolate.
ammonium sulfite a chemical sometimes employed in a technique of chemical hair straightening.
ammonium thioglycolate—a chemical used in cold permanent waving and hair relaxing. sometimes referred to simply as “thio’
amyl acetate—a colorless. aromatic liquid em ployed in making nail polishes.
analysis—a process by which a substance is recog nized and its chemical composition determined.
analysis, hair—an examination to determine the condition of the hair.
anatomy the science of the organic structure of the body.
anemia the condition in which the blood is lacking in red corpuscles or hemoglobin or both.
anesthetic a substance to make the body incapable of feeling pain.
angiology—the study of blood vessels and lymphatics.
angle—the figure formed by the intersection of two straight lines at agiven point. The size of the angle is expressed in degrees based on 360 degrees in a complete circle. An angle whosesides are perpendicular is a right angle and contains 90 degrees.
angular artery supplies the lacrimal sac and the eye muscle.
aniline derivative hair tint a synthetic organic hair dye or tint produced from aniline which in turn can be produced from coal tar; also known as coal-tar dyes or coal-tar derivative tints, amino dyes, etc.
aniline dye—see aniline derivative hair tint. annular finger—ring finger.
anterior—situated before or in front of.
anthrax malignant pustule; gangrenous carbuncle-like lesion.
antibody a substance in the blood which builds resistance to disease.
antidote—an agent preventing or counteracting the action of a poison.
anti-perspirant—a strong astringent liquid or cream used to stop the flow of perspiration in the region of the armpits.
antiseptic a chemical that prevents the growth of bacteria, temporary in action and milder than a disinfectant.
antitoxin a substance in serum which binds and neutralizes poison.
aorta—the main arterial trunk leaving the heart and carrying blood to the various arteries throughout the body.
apex the summit or extremity; the bottom end of the heart.
appendage that which is attached to something else. and is a part of it.
appendix—u small intestinal organ.
applicator an implement used for applying substances.
aqueous—pertaining to water.
aromatic pertaining to or containing aroma.
arrector pili—Ihe involuntary muscles originating in the papillary layer of the skin and connecting bases of the hair follicles, the contraction of which causes “goose pimples.”
art an especial facility in performing any operation, intellectual or physical.
arterial—pertaining to an artery.
arteriole—a terminal artery continuous with the capillary network.
arteriosclerosis abnormal hardness and dryness of the arterial Coats resulting from chronic inflam580
mation.
artery—a vessel that conveys blood from the heart. articulation—a connection between two or more bones.
artificial nails—plastic pre-manufactured nails, or plastic nails formed and hardened right on the customer.
asepsis—.a condition in which bacteria are absent. aseptic—free from bacteria.
ash in hair tinting: a shade containing no red or gold tones (drab).
ash blonde—hair that is not brassy.
assimilation the incorporation of materials prepared by digestion from food into the tissues of the body.
asteotosis a deficiency of the sebaceous secretions.
astringent a lotion or medicine that causes con traction of the tissues.
asymmetrical—lack of symmetry or balance hair styled to one side without equal proportion.
athlete’s foot—a fungus foot infection.
atom—the smallest particle of an element which still retains all of the properties of that element.
atrichia absence of hair.
atrium—the auricle of the heart.
atrophy—a wasting away of the tissues from lack of nutrition.
auditory nerve—eighth cranial nerve, controlling the sense of hearing.
auriculotemporal—sensory nerve affecting the temple, just in front of the ear.
autonomic nervous system—the sympathetic nervous system; controls the involuntary muscles.
B

baby fine hair—a hair fiber that is fine to an extreme degree, due to its particularly small diameter and delicate construction.
bacillus—rod-like shaped bacterium.
back combing—combing the short hair toward the
scalp, starting at the scalp and working toward the ends, while the hair strand is held in a vertical position.
backward curl—curls wound in a counterclockwise direction on the left side of the head; on the right side of the head, such curls will be wound in a clockwise direction.
bacteria—(singutar: bacterium) microscopic
vegetable growths having single celled or non- cellular bodies of various shapes living in soil, water and organic matter; microbes or germs.
bactericide—an agent that destroys bacteria.
bacteriology—the science which deals with bacteria.
balance—(hairstyling) the harmony with the degree of height and proper width designed in a hairstyle.
baldness—a deficiency of hair.
bandeau—hairpiece: one which is sewn to a headband covering the hairline.
band wig—hairpiece: one which is sewn to a headband covering hairline.
bang—the front hair cut so as to fall over the forehead.
barrel curl—a strand of hair held directly up from the scalp and wound, with a large center opening. in a croquignole fashion and fastened to the scalp in a standing position.
basal layer the layer of cells at base of epidermis closest to the dermis.
base—the tower part or bottom; (i.e., the area on which a curl is placed); chemically: the hydroxide of a metal—a bitter tasting corrosive compound having a pH of over 7 (opposite of an acid); hair straightening: a preparation used to protect the scalp which is applied before application of chemical straightener.
base direction—line of motion created in base area. basic hair shaping—a haircut that is sufficiently versatile to accept a variety of contemporary hair fashions of equal facility.
beautician—one trained in the art of beautifying the personal appearance: a cosmetologist.
beauty culture—the study and practice of the improvement of personal appearance.
beeswax—the prepared secretion of the bee, used in hairdressing for unruly ends and strengthening sewing in making hairpieces.
benign—mild in character; inactive.
benzine an inflammable solvent used as a cleansing fluid.
benzoin—a balsamic resin used as a stimulant. bevel—to slope the edge of a surface.
bicarbonate of soda—baking soda; relieves burns, itching, urticarial lesions and insect bites.
biceps—a muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.
bichloride—a compound having two parts or equivalents of chlorine to one of the other dcmeets.
bigoudi a small wooden curler on which the hair is wound for curling in wig work.
bile—a yellowish or greenish viscid fluid secreted by the liver to aid digestion.
bind (in wiggery) a piece of ribbon which is attached to the underside of the wig, encircling the head.
biochemistry—study of the chemical compounds and processes occurring in living organisms; a combination of biology and chemistry.
biology—the science of life and living things.
birthmark—any mark which is present at birth, usually lasting.
blackhead—a comedone; a plug of sebaceous matter.
bleach—see hair lightening.
bleached hair hair from which the color has been wholly or partially removed by means of a bleaching or lightening solution.
bleaching solution—used to remove color, usually hydrogen peroxide with addition of ammonia or other agents.
bleach pack—a bleach solution prepared in a thick
consistency.
blemish a mark. spot or defect marring the appearance.
blend—Ihair shaping) to cut layers of hair so that they merge into each other smoothly with little variation in length apparent.
blending—(hair coloring) a merging of one tint with another.
blister a collection of serous fluid causing a raised elevation of the skin.
block—a head-shaped form apon which a wig is placed for a specific purpose.
blocking—the division of the hair into practical working areas. (See sectioning and scale.)
blond, blonde—a person of fair complexion, with light hair; a color of hair.
blonde on blonde two blonde colors used on separate areas of the head, to achieve a blending of tight and dark shades of blonde.
blonding—to lighten hair, preparing it for a toner. blood the nutritive fluid circututing through the arteries and veins.
blood poison—an infection which gets into the blood stream.
blood vascular system comprised of the heart. arteries, veins, and capillaries, which distribute blood throughout the body.
blood vessel—an artery, vein or capillary.
blue light—a therapeutic tamp used to soothe the nerves and ease pain.
bluing rinse—a solution used to neutralize the unbecoming yellowish tinge on gray or white hair.
blunt—having an edge or point that is not sharp.
blunt cutting—cutting straight across a strand of hair held between the index and middle fingers, resulting in a slight tapered effect. (See club cutting.)
blusher (make-up)—a rouge of subtle color used for highlighting.
bob—a short haircut for women.
bobby pin—a “U” shaped clamp type pin with ends pressed close together.
body consistency; solidity of texture.
body permanent—a permanent given to impart body, rather than a curl or visibte wave to the hair.
boil a subcutaneous abscess which drains Out onto the surface of the skin.
boiling point—the temperature at which a liquid begins to boil.
bond—a linkage between two atoms forming a molecule.
bone—the hard tissue forming the framework of the body.
boom-boom iron a curling iron with oversized rod and groove.
booster—a trade name for an agent which raises the potency of an activated substance; a bleach and peroxide accelerator.
bop iron—a curling iron with oversized rod and groove. (See boom-boom iron and directional iron.)
boric acid—used as an antiseptic.
bouffant extreme height and fullness in a finished hairstyle.
braid—to weave or interlace together. brain that part of the central nervous system contained in the cranial cavity, and consisting of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the pons. and the medulla oblongata.
brassy tone—a harsh brassy like color quality. Red and/or gold highlights.
breakage—a condition in which hair splits and breaks off.
brightening—highlighting the appearance of hair by slightly lightening or toning the natural shade.
brilliantine—an oily composition that imparts luster to the hair.
bristle short, stiff hairs found on brushes.
brittle—easily broken; fragile.
brittle hair—dry, fragile hair that is easily broken. brow the forehead.
bruise—to injure without laceration. brunette a person having dark brown or black hair.
brush-combing—back combing with a brush.
brush curl—to turn, blend. or form the hair into curls with the use of hair brush. fingers, and/or comb.
brushing—(facials) a machine with a facial brush attachment which rotates at high speed. Used for oily skin and back or shoulder treatments.
brush out—the opening and blending of the hair setting, curls, waves. etc.. into the finished style. using a hair brush and/or a comb.
buccal nerve—a motor nerve affecting the buccinator and the orbiculuris oris muscle.
buccinator—a thin, flat muscle of the cheek. buckles—(hairstyling) distortion of. or a bend in a curl.
buffer—a manicuring instrument which is used with powdered polish to add lustre on the nails.
bulb—the lowest extremity of the hair. bulbous—pertaining to. or like a bulb in shape. bulky—a great thickness.

C
cache peigne—a covered comb used for attaching a chignon to the hair.
calamine lotion—zinc carbonate in alcohol used for dermatitis.
calcium—enters into the composition of bone. callus—skin which has become hardened. camomile—an herb used as a brightening rinse for blond hair.
camphor—a mild cutaneous stimulant; has a slightly anaesthetic and cooling effect.
cancellous—having a porous or spongy structure. candlelighting—a light-tone blond with dark overtones.
caninus—the levator anguli oris muscle which lifts the angle of the mouth.
canitics—the science which treats canities. (Whitehair).
canities—grayness or whiteness of the hair.
canities, congenital—a type of gray hair transmitted by heredity as in albinism.
canities, premature—grayness of hair at an early age.
canities, senile—grayness of hair in old age.
cap—(wiggery) the netting and binding of a wig which together form the base to which the hair is attached.
cape—a waterproof garment used to protect the patron’s clothing during beauty treatment.
capillary—any one of the minute blood vessels which connect the arteries and veins.
caput—pertaining to the head.
carbohydrate—a substance containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
carbolic acid—phenol made from coal tar; used in dilute solution as an antiseptic.
carbon—coal; an elementary substance in nature which predominates in all organic compounds.
carbon-arc lamp—an instrument which produces ultraviolet rays.
carbon dioxide—carbonic acid gas; product of the combustion of carbon with a free supply of air.
carbuncle—a large circumscribed inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue.
cardiac—pertaining to the heart.
carotid—the principal artery of the neck.
cartilage—gristle; a nonvascular connective tissue softer than bone.
carved curl—a section of hair, sliced with a comb from a shaping and formed into a curl without lifting the stem from the shaping.
cascade—a hairpiece with an oblong-shaped base primarily worn on the back of the head.
cascade curl—a pin curl with a large open center and fastened to the scalp in a standing position.
castile soap—soap made from olive oil and other oils as Opposed to synthetic detergents.
catabolism—chemical changes which involve the breaking down process within the cells.
catalyst—an agent that causes an increased rate of chemical change; or converts the relatively inactive molecules of an element into active atoms of that element; hastens a chemical reaction.
caustic—a strong alkali capable of eating away other substances by chemical action.
caustic soda—common name for sodium hydroxide.
cell—a small mass of protoplasm containing one or more nuclei capable alone or with other cells of performing functions of life; the smallest form of living matter capable of functioning as an independent Unit.
cellular—consisting of, or pertaining to cells.
centigrade—consisting of 100 degrees; the centigrade thermometer assigns zero to the freezing point of water and 100 to the boiling point.
cerebellum—the posterior and lower part of the brain.
cerebral—pertaining to the cerebrum.
cerebrospinal system—consists of the brain, spinal
cord, spinal nerves and the cranial nerves.
cerebrum—the superior and larger part of the brain.
certified color—a pure commercial coloring product usually temporary in effect.
chemical—relating to chemistry.
chemical change—a reaction resulting in the formation of one or more new substances, each having its own properties.
chemical compound—a combination of elements chemically united in definite proportions.
chemical hair relaxer—a chemical agent which is employed to partially straighten curly hair.
chemical hair relaxing—the process of partially straightening curly hair by the use of chemical agents.
chemical hair straightener—a chemical product used to completely straighten kinky hair.
chemistry—the science dealing with the composition of substances and the many ways they change or react with others.
chignon—a pattern of hair worn at the crown or nape, created from hair, or from a hairpiece.
chiropody—the art of treating minor conditions of the feet.
chloasma—large brown irregular patches on the skin, such as liver spots.
chlorazene—a trade term for the chemical chtoramine T used as an antiseptic ordisinfectant.
chlorine—a greenish yellow gas used in combined form, such as sodium hypochlorite (clorox) and
chloramine T, as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.
chloro-zol—a trade name for a special tablet of chtoramine T used for preparing a germicide.
cholesterol—a waxy substance, called a lipid. found in animal tissues and the bloodstream; it is present in lanolin, and is used to prevent dryness of the hair and scalp.
chromosomes tiny dark-stained bodies found in the nucleus of the cell; transmit hereditary characteristics in cell division.
chronic—long-continued; the opposite of acute. chrysarobin—a powerful parasiticide powder used
in the treatment of skin diseases.
chuck—to strike vigorously; a term used in massage.
cicatrix—the skin or film which gradually forms a scar over a wound.
cilia—the eyelashes.
circle—a geometric shape formed by a curved line every point of which is equal distance from a center point.
circle design—equal distribution of straight or curved lines from a center point; a rotary flow.
circulation—orderly flow, such as the passage of blood throughout the body.
circulation, pulmonary blood circulation from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
circumscribed—surrounded by a line or boundary. citric acid—an acid obtained from lemon and lime juices or fermentation used for making rinses.
clamp—a device for compressing or holding some-
thing, such as a mannequin on a shelf or hair within a wave-clamp or in heat waving.
clavicle—collar bone, linking the sternum and scapula.
clay—an earthy silicate and mineral material, which hardens when dried, used for facial packs.
clay pack—a colloidal clay preparation used in facial treatineuts to stimulate the circulation and temporarily contract the pores. Recommended for oily skin.
cleansing cream a water-in-oil emulsion used to remove make-up and impurities.
clip—a small, clamp-like device used to secure pin curls, hair rollers, or waves.
clipping—(haircutting) the act of cutting split hair ends with the scissors; the operation of removing the hair by the use of hair clippers.
clockwise (hairstyling) the movement of hair, in shapings or curls, in the same direction as the hands of a clock.
clot—a mass or lump of coagulated blood. club cutting—cutting the hair straight off, while
being held flat to the contour of the head, which resutts in a straight line without a tapered effect.
coagulate—to clot.
coal tar dye another term for aniline dye. (See aniline derivative hair tint.)
coarse hair a hair fiber that is relatively large in diameter or circumference.
coating—residue left on the hair shaft which retards the action of chemicals upon the hair fiber.
coccus—spherical cell bacterium.
cocktail shampoo—the process of diluting tint with shampoo or water, and working it through the head like a shampoo without developing time.
coiffeur—a male hairdresser. coiffeuse—a female hairdresser. coiffure—a hairstyle. coil—to twist or wind spirally.
cold waving—a system of permanent waving involving the use of chemicals rather than heat.
cold waving lotion often ammoniuini thioglycol ate, a chemical solution, used to break the bonds in the polypcptide chains in the hair molecules so they can he re-firmed on a rod.
collodion a thick liquid used to lbrni an adhesive covering.
colloid a suspension of fine particles of a solid, or another liquid, in liquid to form a translucent solution.
color any tint or hue as distinguished from whitc. color blender (hair coloring) a product which
cleanses, highlights, blends in gray and streaked hair to the natural color.
color builder—(hair coloring) a filter to build color on over-porous hair so it can take and hold color evenly.
color-fast shampoo a mild shampoo especially formulated for cleansing and protecting the color stability of hair that has been tinted or lightened.
color filler—)hair coloringl a preparation used to provide lilt for porous spots in the hair during tinting, lightening, and after permanent waving.
colorist—a qualified hairdresser specializing in the application of hair colors.
color lifter—a dye remover; a chemical to remove artificial color from the hair.
color mixing—mixing two shades together for an in-between color.
color remover—a prepared commercial product which removes tint from the hair.
color rinse—u rinse which gives a temporary tint to the hair.
color shampoo—a preparation which colors and cleanses the hair permanently without requiring sectioning and subsectioning.
color test—a test performed prior to coloring, from which a strand of hair is treated with the precise formula in order to determine timing and the correctness of formula.
comb—an instrument used to dress, part and arrange the hair.
combout—)hairstyl ing) the opening and blending of the hair setting, curls, waves. etc.. into the finished style, using a hair brush and/or a comb.
combustion—the rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
comedone extractor an instrument used for the removal of btackheads.
comedones blackheads; tiny facial spots caused by obstructed pores.
communicable—able to be communicated; transferable.
complexion—hue or general appearance of the skin, and the face.
component an ingredient, a part of the whole. composition—the quality of being put together. compound—a combination of elements chemically united in definite proportions to the original ingredients.
compound henna—Egyptian henna to which has been added other dye preparations.
compressor—a muscle that compresses a part of the body.
concave—hollow or incurved.
concentrated—condensed; increasing the strength by diminishing the bulk.
concentric—having a common center such as hair movements and growths radiating from a common point.
condensation a physical change of a gas into a liquid.
conditioner—any product applied to the hair to improve its condition.
conditioning the application of special chemicat agents to the hair to help restore its strength and body.
condyle—a rounded articutar surface ut the extremity of bone.
congeal—to change from a fluid to a solid state. congenital—existing at birth; born with. congestion—overlultness of the capillary and other blood vessels in any locality or organ.
connecting—(fingerwaving) the meeting of a ridge from one side of the head with a ridge from the opposite side of the head.
connecting line—connection between two circular shapes of clockwise and counterclockwise forces. Also referred to as dividing.
conoid—cone shaped.
consistency—a degree of density or firmness of either a solid or a liquid.
contact—bringing together so as to touch. contagion—transmission of specific diseases by contact.
contagious—transmittable by contact. contamination—pollution; soiling with infectious
matter.
contour—the outline of a figure or body. contractility—the property of contracting or shortening, as in muscular stimulation.
contraction—having power to become shorter; the act of shrinking.
contrast—exhibiting notable difference by comparison.
convex—curving outward like the segment of a circle, rising or swelling on the exterior surface into a round form; arched; opposite of concave.
corium—the derma or true skin.
cornification—the process of becoming a horny substance or tissue; a callosity.
coronary—resembling a crown; encircling another body part; relating to the heart.
corpuscles, red—cells in blood whose function is to carry oxygen to the body tissue.
corpuscles, white—cells in the blood whose function is to destroy disease genus.
corrode to destroy gradually by chemical action. corrugations—alternate ridges and furrows. corrugator supercilli—draws eyebrows inward and downward, thus causing vertical wrinkles at the root of the nose.
cortex—the second layer of the hair. cosmetic dermatology—a branch of dermatology
devoted to improving the health and beauty of the skin and its appendages.
cosmeticians—those professionally engaged in improving the complexion, skin, and hair.
cosmetics—any substances used externally to cleanse, alter or improve the appearance of a person.
cosmetic therapy—improving a person’s appearance and mental attitude through cosmetology.
cosmetologist—one skilled in the professional practice of improving beauty.
cosmetology—the science of beautifying and improving the complexion, skin, hair or nails.
counterclockwise—the movement of hair in the opposite direction to the hands of a clock.
coverage—(hair coloring) the degree to which gray and white hair has been colored.
cowlick—a tuft of hair forming a spiral turn, growing contrary to the usual growth pattern of the hair.
cranial—pertaining to the cranium. cranium—the bones of the head that enclose the brain.
crayon—(hair coloring) a stick of temporary coloring material.
cream a semisolid cosmetic usually in ajar. creme—a thick liquid usually in a bottle. creme rinse—a hair rinse containing surface active agents which deposit a light film on the hair making it feel silky and easier to comb.
crepe wool wool strands sometimes used to confine hair ends in winding.
cresol—a colorless, oily liquid or solid derived from coal tar and used as a disinfectant.
crest—a ridge, line or thin mark made by folding or doubling, as a crest between two waves, where one begin and the other ends.
croquignole—winding of the hair from ends to the scalp.
croquignole curling (thermal waving) curling a strand of hair with hot curling iron, developing the entire curl at about I inch from the scalp.
crown of the head—the top back part of the head. curd—soap residue found on the hair after an unsatisfactory shampoo.
curl—a circle, or circles, within a circle. curl, barrel a strand of hair held directly up from the scalp and wound, with a large center opening, in a croquignole fashion and fastened to the scalp in a standing position.
curl, base—foundation of the curl, at the scalp. curl, cascade a pin curl with a large open center and fastened to the scalp in a standing position.
curl, directional—a pin curl made in the opposite direction of the front line curl.
curl direction the movement of hair in order to form a particular pattern or style (i.e.. forward, toward the face; backward, away from the face, clockwise, counterclockwise).
curl, maypole—overlapping around finger with ends on outside.
curl, overlapping—a pin curl which partially rests on a previously made pin curl.
curl, pin—a strand of hair which is combed smooth and ribbon-like and wound into a circle with the ends on the inside.
curl, ridge—a curl placed behind and close to the ridge of a fingerwave.
curl, roller—a section of wet hair wrapped around a roller.
curl, sculpture—same as pin curl.
curl, stand-up—a pin curl with a large open center and fastened to the scalp in a standing position.
curl, supporting—a pin curl made in the same direction of the front line curl.
curl stem—that part of the pin curl between the base and the first arc of the circle.
curler—that which curls hair, either using water or heat.
curling—a process of hair curling and waving. curling paper—used in a technique of making a pin curl with a folded piece of paper to help control short, wiry hair. Also used with a paper-curling iron.
curling, round—a process of rolling the hair tightly and evenly around a heated curling iron, starting at the ends.
curly—tending to curl; full of curls.
curriculum the course outline of study in a school.
curvature lines—moldings; shapings; combing out into a combined concave and convex tiow.
curved line—a half circle or a shaping started from a given point.
cutaneous—pertaining to the skin.
cuticle—the Outer layer of the skin (epidermis) or hair; also refers to the fold of epidermis around the fingernail.
cuticle remover a solution of alkali, glycerine and water used to soften and remove dead cuticle around the nail.
cutis the derma or deeper layer of the skin. cylindrical—having the form of a cylinder—the surface formed by a straight line moving in a circle around a parallel straight line.
cyst—a closed abnormally developed sac conthin ing fluid.
cysteine—an amino acid containing sulfur which is easily oxidized to cystine.
cystine—a crystalline amino acid containing two sulfur atoms found in proteins (as keratins).

D
damaged hair—a hair condition characterized by one or more of the following; high porosity, brittleness, split ends, lightened ends, dryness, lack of gloss and elasticity.
dandruff—pityriasis: scales formed upon the scalp. dandruff shampoo a commercially prepared product to aid in the control and elimination of dandruff when used as directed.
decalvant removing the hair, making bald. decomposition—breaking down into constituent
parts by chemical action or delay. deficiency—a lacking. deltoid—a muscle of the shoulder. demarcation a line setting bounds.
dendrite a treelike branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell.
dense—thick, heavy.
density—the number of hairs per square inch at the scalp.
deodorant—a substance that conceals offensive odors, or stops perspiration.
deodorize to free from odor. depilation—removal of hair above the skin. depilatory—a caustic alkali, used to remove hair. deportment manner of conduct or behavior. depression—a hollow or sunken area. depressor—that which presses or draws down; a muscle that depresses.
depressor alae nasi—a muscle which contracts the nostril.
depressor anguli oris a muscle that depresses the angle of the mouth.
depressor labii inferioris—a muscle that depresses the lower lip.
derivative—that which is derived or deduced from
another.
derma the true skin; the sensitive layer of the skin below the epidermis.
dermal pertaining to the skin. dermatitis—inflammation of the skin. dermatitis seborrheica—dermatitis found with overactive sebaceous glands.
dermatitis venenata—technical term for hair dye poisoning: inflammation of skin caused by hair dye.
dermatologist—a professional specialist in the science of treating the skin and its diseases.
dermatology—the science which treats the skin and its diseases.
dermatosis any disease of the skin. dermis—the layer of the skin below the epidermis. design arrangement of shapes, lines, and ornamental effects which create an artistic unit.
design (two dimensional)—a pattern effect on a flat surface.
design (three dimensional)—a sculpturing effect with hair, creating volume and/or indentation tnto a shape.
detergent—an agent that cleanses; a synthetic soap. develop the action of a hair tint or bleach taking effect.
developer a chemical agent which is mixed with tints, dyes, and bleaches; usually a peroxide.
developing time—(tinting and bleaching) the period required for the hair bleach or tint solulions to act upon the hair. Timing begins at completion of application.
dexterity skill, expertness in manual acts. diagnosis—the recognition of a disease or problem from its symptoms.
diagram—a drawing that explains rather than rep resents.
dialysis—the separation of different substances in solution by their unequal diffusion through membranes.
diamond mesh—(wig making) a method of sewing weft into diamond-shaped meshes. The weaving incorporates one strand of wire.
diaphragm—a muscular wall which separates the thorax from the abdomen.
diet—a course of food selected with reference to a particular health condition.
differentiate—to indicate specific differences. diffusion—a spreading out.
digestion the process of converting food into a form which can be readily absorbed by the body.
digits—fingers or toes.
dilator naris anterior—a muscle which dilates the nostril.
dilute to make thinner by mixing. dimension—measure as to length, with height. thickness or circumference.
dimensional coloring—(two or three dimensional)—two or three shades of the same color cast on one head of hair.
dimensional design or form—(hairstyling) three dimensional sculpturing effect with hair, creating volume or volume indentation into a shape andsilhouette. (See design.) diplococcus—bacteria exhibiting pairs. direct point—parting of straight or curved lines
from a point to the outline of a circular shape. directional curl a pin curl made in the opposite
direction of the front line curl.
directional iron a curling iron with oversized rod and groove used for straight, smooth lines in styling.
discoloration—lhe development of an undesired color.
disease—a pathologic condition of any part or organ of the body.
disease carrier a healthy person capable of transmitting germs to another person.
disinfectant—a substance that completely destroys bacteria.
dispensary a place where supplies are prepared and dispensed.
dissolve—to make a solution of: to break up. distill to concentrate or extract the essence of a substance.
distinctive—characteristic, making a difference. disulfide links bonds or cross-linkages in the polypeptide chains of hair molecules which are broken by the action of cold waving lotions or hair straighteners so the hair can be reformed.
dormant—inactive.
dorsal—pertaining to the back.
double knotting the means of attaching hair to the netting of hairpieces.
downward—(hairstyling) toward the shoulder usually away from the part.
drab—(hair coloring) a yellowish gray color. No red or gold.
dropping a wave—to discontinue a wave instead of carrying it around the entire head.
ry hair hair that is devoid of sufficient or normal
) natural oils.
‘ dry shampoo—a substance used to cleanse the hair without the use of soap and water. (Powder or liquid.)
duct—a passage or canal fbr fluids.
dye—(haircoloring) a chemical that adds color to hair.
dye remover—a substance that removes dye from hair.
dye solvent a chemical compound used to remove artificial color from the hair.
dynel—a synthetic hair like fiber used in making ready-to-wear wigs and hairpieces.


E
eczema—an inflammatory condition of the skin. characterized by redness, itching and lesions.
efferent nerves—nerves conveying impulses away from the central nervous system.
effilate—to cut the hair strand by a sliding movement of the scissors in an opened position.
effileing—(haircutting) slithering: the tapering of
hair to graduated lengths. From the French term “effile”.
effleurage—a light, stroking movement in massage.
Egyptian henna—a pure vegetable hair dye.
elasticity the ability of hair to be stretched and return to its original length.
electricity—a form of energy, exhibiting magnetic. illuminating or thermal effects usually utilized in the form of electric current.
electrification—the application of electricity to the body by holding an electrode in the hand and charging the body with electricity.
electrocoagulation—short wave, single needle method of electrolysis.
electrode—an applicator for directing the use of electricity on a patron.
electrologist—skilled in applying the science of electrolysis.
electrology—science in relation to electricity.
electrolysis—destruction of body tissues and hair roots by means of an electric current.
electrolytic cup—an appliance used to cleanse the skin, before giving a massage.
element—a simple substance which cannot be decomposed or separated into any other substance.
embryo—in the first stages of development.
emery board a disposable instrument having cutting ridges, used to remove a portion of the free edge of the nail.
emollient—an agent that softens or soothes the surface of the skin.
emotion—mental excitement.
emulsified—a binder or surface active agent added to a mixture of two liquids to keep the particles of each in suspension.
emulsion—a mixture of two tiquids shaken together until they break up into minute gtobules held in suspension by an emulsifier.
enamel—gloss: polish.
endocrine internal secretion or hormone.
endosteum the membrane covering the inner sur face of bone in the medutlary cavity.
end papers—special papers used to control the ends of hair in wrapping. (i.e., in winding hair on rods or rollers).
ends, hair—last inch of a strand of hair furthest from the scalp.
environment—surrounding conditions.
enzyme—a substance which induces a chemical change in other substances, without undergoing any change itself.
epicranium—the structure covering the cranium. epcranius—the scalp muscte.
epidemic—affecting many people: a prevailing disease.
epidermis—the outer epithelial portion of the skin. epilation the removal of hair from beneath the surface of the skin.
epithelial tissue—a term applied to cells that form the epidermis.
epithelium—a cellular tissue isr membrane, with
little intercellular substance, lining a cavity. eponychium—the extension of cuticte at base of
nail and the continuous fold of epidermis at the sides.
equation a shorthand method of expressing a chemical reaction.
eruption a visible lesion of the skin marked by redness.
erysipelas—an acute infectious disease accompanied by inflammation of the skin.
erythema a superficial blush or redness of the skin.
erythrocyte—a red blood cell: red corpuscle. esophagus—the canal leading from the pharynx to the stomach.
esthetic—retating to the nature and principles of beauty. (Also spelled aesthetic.)
ether—obtained from distilling alcohol with sulphuric acid: used as an anesthetic.
ethics principles of good character and proper conduct.
ethmoid—a bone forming part of the walls of the nasal cavity.
etiology—the science of the causes of disease. European hair—human hair found in Europe and considered to be the finest hair available: used in constructing wigs and hairpieces.
evaporation—change from liquid to vapor. excitation the act of stimulating. excoriation—act of stripping or wearing off the skin.
excretion that which is eliminated from the body. exfoliation—throwing off scales from the skin as in dandruff.
exhalation—breathing outward.
exhaustion—loss of vital power from fatigue. nerves, or disease.
expansion—dilation or swelling.
expert one whc, has special knowledge or skilt ui a particular subject.
extensibility capable of being extended or stretched.
extensor a muscle which extends or straightens out a limb or part.
externus external: the outside.
extremity the distant end or part of any organ: a hand or foot.
exudation—act ofdischarging from a body through pores, as sweat or flloisture: oozing Out.
eyeball the globe of the eye. eyebrow the hair and tissue above the eye. eyelashes the hair of the eyelids. eyelid the protective covering of the eyeball. eye-shadow—a cosmetic applied on the eyelids,
consisting of waxes, oils and cisloring matter in various forms.

F
face framing—(hair coloring) a narrow sertion of hairaround the face) Ito 11/:”) lightengd one or
two shades.
facial—pertaining to the face, also a short term lbr facial treatment.
fade—to become indistinct: to gradually disappear. Fahrenheit—pertaining to the Fahrenheit thermometer. Water freeles at 32 F. and boils at 2l2
F.
fall a long artificial section of hair worn at the top back of the head.
faradism—electricat treatment used br stimulating activity of the tissues.
fascia a sheet of connective tissue covering internal parts of the body.
fat—soft-solid material found in animal tissue. fatigue—bodily or mental exhaustion. favus—a contagious disease isf the skin, with crusts.
feathercut—a basic hair shaping consisting of a smooth crown, surrounded by tapered ends.
featheredge shortening the hair in a graduated effect to a fine edge.
felon—paronychia of the nail.
fermentation a chemical decomposition of organic compounds into more simple compounds. by the action of an enzyme.
fetid—having a foul smell. fver—rise of body temperature.
fever blister—the presence of vesicles over an inflammatory base: herpes simplex.
fiber a slender thread or filament. fibrin—the agent in coagulation of the blood. fibrinogen a substance producing tibrin. fibrous—consisting of or like fibers. file—a hardened steel instrument having cutting
edges used to remove a portion of the free edge of the nail.
filler—a preparation used to provide fill for porous spots in the hair during tinting, lightening and peritianent waving.
filter anything through which a gas or a liquid is passed to cleanse or strain it.
fine—(texture) being (sfa small diameter, not coarse or thick.
fine hair—a hair fiber that is relatively small in diameter or circumference.
finesse delicate skill.
fingerwave—ihe process of setting the hair in a pattern of waves through the use of fingers..c()nih and a waving lotion.
finishing cream—an emulsion of stearic acid in water. such as powder base and foundation cream, used before make-up is applied.
finishing knot—the manner of weaving the final strand of hair. on a hairpiece, to prevent the work from becoming loose.
fishhook—a tiaw in the curling of hair which results in the tip ends of hair bending in a direction other than that of the rest of the curl.
fission—(biology) reproduction of bacteria by eel lalar division.
fissure—a narrow opening niade by separation of parts: a slit.
fixative—un hairstyling) a hairdressing used tokeep hair in place; (in cold waving) a chemical agent stopping the chemical action of the waving solution; (in hair straightening) a chemical agent stopping the processing of the chemical hair relaxer.
flabby—lacking firmness.
flat weft once-in weaving; in hairstyling used to practice fingerwaving.
flexor—a muscle that bends or flexes a part or a joint.
florid—flushed with red.
fluff—hair that is combed so that it has a soft, airy effect.
fluid a non-solid substance (liquid, cream, or gas).
fly weft—fine weaving used for the top row of a hairpiece made of a weft.
foil—a thin sheet of metal such as aluminum or tin. follicle—the depression in the skin containing the hair root.
folliculitis—an inflammation of any follicle.
foramen—a passage through a bone or membrane. forces—causes of motion or change, also in hairstyling, the direction of motion from a point in straight or curved degrees.
formaldehyde—a poisonous gas with powerful disinfectant properties, formerly used in sterilizing cabinets.
formalin—a 40% solution of formaldehyde in water.
formula—abbreviation for a chemical compound giving the symbols of the elements that compose it and the proportions in which they are combined.
forward curl—curls wound toward the face, in a clockwise direction on the left side of the head and a counterclockwise direction on the right side.
forward wave—a wave shaped toward the face.
foundation—(wig making) the base of a hairpiece, made of net, to which the hair is attached.
foundation cream—an emulsion used as a base for make-up. (See finishing cream.)
fragile hair—hair which is lacking in normal flexibility, tensile strength, and resilience; usually brittle and easily broken.
fragilitas crinium—brittleness of the hair. frayed—worn away by friction.
freckle—a brown spot on the skin, caused by uneven development of pigment.
free edge the part of the nail body extending over the fingertip.
French flow technique—using a double row of rollers or pin curls in an oblong shape.
French fluff (soap cap)—the process of diluting a bleaching or tint with shampoo or water, and working it through the head like a shampoo.
French lacing—same as teasing.
French twist—a vertical seam-like arrangement of hair at the back of the head.
friction—resistance when one body is rubbed against another.
fringe—a wispy type bang.
frizz—hair having too much curl.
frontal—in front; relating to the forehead.
frontalis—musele of the scalp. frosting—(haircoloring) to lighten or darken small selected strands of hair over the entire head.
fuller’s earth—a soapy clay used as a thundation for packs and masks.
fulling—a massage movement.
fumigant a gaseous substance capable of destroying bacteria.
fumigation—destruction of germs by a fumigant. function a normal action of a part. fungus—a spongy growth of diseased tissue on the body.
funny hone the bone on the inner side of the forearm; a tingling sensation is felt when the nerve is struck.
furrow—a groove.
furuncle—a boil.
ganglion a subcutaneous tumor or cystic swelling connected with tendon sheaths.
gangrene the dying of tissue.
gastric juice the digestive fluid secreted by the glands of the stomach.
gauze—a thin open-meshed cloth used for dressings.
gel, styling—ajelly-like hair setting preparation; in chemistry, a word for the semisolid mass formed by some colloidal materials in water.
gentian violet—an antiseptic used in the first aid treatment of a burn.
germ—a bacillus; a microbe. germicide—a solution that will destroy germs. germinative layer—the deepest layer of the epidermis resting on the corium.
glamour—alluring and often illusory charm. gland—a secretory organ of the body. glimmer a rouge which imparts a gloss. glint—luster; shine.
glycerine—a syrupy, alcoholic compound which is soluble in water. Used in many cosmetic creams.
goiter—enlargement of the thyroid gland. granular layer—the stratum granulosum of the skin.
granules—small grains. granulosum—granular layer of the epidermis. great auricular—a nerve affecting the face, ears, neck and parotid gland.
greater occipital—sensory and motor nerve affect ing the splenius, complexus and scalp.
gristle—cartilage.
groom—to make neat.
groove—(hairstyling) the valley between two ridges; (in thermal irons) the shell part of the iron into which the rod fits.
Guiche curl—a short flat “C” shaped curl placed on the skin near the cheek bone.
hacking a chopping stroke made with the edge of the hand in massage.
hackling—(wig making)—a process by which tangled hair maybe disentangled.
hair—slender thread-like outgrowth on the body.
hair bleaching—removing the natural pigment from the hair.
hair bobbing—the cutting ssf women’s hair in a short fashion.
hair bulb the lowest extremity of the hair.
hair clipping—removing split ends with the scissors.
hair color lotion a semipermanent hair coloring which does not need a developer.
haircutting shortening and thinning of the hair.
hairdressing—the art of arranging the hair into styles.
hair dyeing—the process ofgiving the hair new and permanent color.
hair follicle—the depression in the skin containing the root of the hair.
hair lace—(wig making) a form of net foundation made of stiffened human hair.
hair lift—an implement used to lift hair into balance while combing.
hair lightening—removing color pigment from hair; bleaching.
hairline—the edge of the scalp where the hair begins.
hair papilla—a small cone-shaped elevation at the bottom of the hair follicle.
hairpiece—wiglet; fall; cascade.
hair pressing—straighlening curly or kinky hair with heated iron or comb.
hair pressing cream a cream used in hair pressing u.s a protective lubricant for normal hair.
hair pressing oil—an oil used in hair pressing as a protective lubricant for dry hair.
hair restorer a metallic, progressive dye. hair root—that part of the hair within the follicle.
hair set tape—a tape which sticks to wet hair when setting bangs, side curls, and back of neck hair when designing straight lines or when the hair is too short to set on rollers or in pin curls.
hair shaft—the hair which projects beyond the skin.
hair shaping—the art of haircutting.
hair softener—On hairstyling) a hair pomade. cream or creme rinse; (in hair tinting) a peroxide and ammonia mixture applied before tinting.
hair spray—a cosmetic applied in the form of a mist to hold the hairstyle in place.
hair straightener—a chemical agent used in straightening kinky or curly hair.
hair test a sampling of how the hair will react. hair tinting—the act of adding color pigment to hair.
hair trim—the act of cutting the hair lightly. hair weaving—the process of sewing a base of nylon thread into the remaining natural hair and
tying wefted hairs to that base to eliminate the appearance of baldness.
half wig—a front or hack hairpiece made on half of a wig base to blend with the wearer’s natural hair.
halitosis foul breath.
halo lightening—(hair coloring) only the crown hair is lightened one or two shades.
handmade—describes a wig or hairpiece made by hand.
hand tied—(wig making) a process in which individual hairs are inserted with a needle into a mesh in designing a hairpiece; also referred to as a ventilated hairpiece.
hangnail—a strip of epidermis at the side of the nail.
hard water—water containing certain salts of calcium and magnesium which do not lather easily with soap.
harmony relationship of shapes and lines. heart—a hollow muscular organ which keeps up the circulation of the blood.
heating cap—an insulated cap, containing interwoven electrical wires, which is used for heating the hair and scalp in corrective treatments.
heat waving a system of permanent waving employing either machines or chemicals to generate heat.
heavy side of the head—the side of the head to which most of the hair is directed.
hematocyte—a blood corpuscle.
hemoglobin—the iron-containing protein pigment in the red blood cells.
hemorrhage bleeding.
henna—used as a dye, imparting a reddish tint only. henna, compound—pure henna to which has been added one or more metallic preparations.
henna, white—magnesium carbonate; mixed wit’ peroxide and ammonia, it is used to bleach hai. Excellent for bleaching hair on arms, legs and face.
heredity—transmission of qualities from parents to their children genetically.
herpes—an inflammation of the skin having small vesicles in clusters.
herpes simplex—fever blister; cold sore. hidrosis—ahnormat sweating. high fashion—the accentuated design of the day’s
fashion trends, either in hairstyling or hair coloring.
high fashion blonding—a double process coloring where the hair is lightened and then toned.
high frequency—violet ray machine used for stimulation.
highlighting—the introduction of color to increase the brightness of the hair.
hirsute—hairy; often used to refer to overgrown or pubescent hair.
hirsuties—growth of hair in unusual locations, as on the faces of women.
histology—the science of the structure of organic tissues.
hives—a skin eruption.
horizontal—parallel to the ground; usuallydescribed in terms of left and right as opposed to up and down.
hormone—substance formed in one organ and carried in the blood to another organ, which it stimulates to functional activity.
horny—hard.
humidity—moisture in the air. hydro—a prefix denoting water.
hydrocystoma—a variety of sudamen appearing on the face.
hydrogen—a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas which readily combines with other elements to form millions of chemical compounds.
hydrogenate—to add hydrogen to the molecules of an unsaturated organic compound usually for the purpose of changing it to a cream consistency.
hydrogen peroxide—an oxidizing agent used in cosmetology for bleaching, developing aniline dyes, and as a fixative for thio cold waving lotions.
hydroxy cellulose—a chemical thickening agent; makes watery liquids thick.
hygiene—the science of preserving health. hygroscopic—absorbing and retaining moisture. hyperhydrosis—excessive sweating. hypernecretion—excessive secretion. hypersensitivity—usually affected by external agencies or influences to which a normal individual does not react.
hypertrophy—abnormal increase in the size of an organ: overgrowth.
hypodermic—beneath the skin. hypoglossal—under the tongue.
hyponychium—the extension of the skin underneath the free edge of the nail.
icing—(hair coloring) a half frosting (front half or back half).
idiosyncrasy—an individual characteristic or peculiarity due to the action of certain drugs, articles of diet, etc.
illuminating—(hair coloring) a process in which one specific area, usually bangs, is lightened two or three shades.
imbrications of hair—tiny overlapping scales on the hair cuticle.
immerse—to dip, submerge isa liquid.
immiscible—a liquid that will not mix with another liquid.
immunity—freedom from or resistance to. impetigo contagiosa a contagious disease.
characterized by an eruption which develops into pustules.
implement—an instrument used to accomplish a given work.
incandescent—giving light and heat.
incubation—the period between the implanting of the contagion and the development of the symp
toms.
indentation—a curved, hollow or spaced form. index—the forefinger.
indigo—a blue dyestuff (rinse).
indirect point—partings of an oval shape, using straight or curved lines, first parting out of the circumference, then inner section all from one point.
inelasticity the ability of hair to stretch but not return to its former shape.
inert—inactive.
infect—to cause infection. infection—contamination of the body tissues by germs.
infection, general—the result of germs gaining entrance into the blood stream.
infection, local—confined to only certain portions of the body.
infectious—capable of causing infection. inferioris—below: lower. inflammation—the reaction of the body to irritation.
infraorbital—below the orbit: a sensory and motor nerve affecting the cheek muscles, nose, and upper lip.
infrared thermal radiation of wavelengths lying outside of the visible spectrum.
infratrochlear—sensory nerve affecting the skin of the nose and the inner muscle of the eye.
ingrown hair a hair that has grown underneath the skin.
ingrown nail—the growth of the nail into the flesh instead of the tip of the linger or toe.
inhalation—the inbreathing of air.
inner and outer circle—(hair sectioning) inner has a pie-shape base section: Outer has an oblique base.
innominate veins—veins of the neck. inoculation—the means by which protective agents are introduced into the body.
inorganic—matter not relating to living organisms. insanitary—so unclean as to endanger health. insoluble—incapable of being dissolved. insulin—a protein hormone essential to carbohydrate metabolism, used in treatment of diabetes.
insurance—protection against loss, damage or injury.
integument—a covering of the skin. internus—pertaining to the inside. interosseous—lying between or connecting hones. interstice—a small hole in a tissue: pore. intestine—the digestive tube from the stomach to the anus.
inversion—turning inward.
involuntary muscles muscles that unction without the action of the will.
iodine—an antiseptic for cuts, bruises. etc. ion—an atom carrying an electric charge. iris—the colored, muscular diaphragm of the eye which regulates the pupil.
irradiation—the process of exposing to sunlight rays.
irritant—an irritating agent. a stimulus.
J.L. (International Hairgoods Color Ring)—original color ring developed by Jacques Leclebart and accepted by the industry.
joining—(hairstyling) the process whereby a fingerwave is lengthened: connecting.
joint—a connection between bones. jowl—the hanging part of the chin. jugular—the large vein in the neck.
kaolin—fuller’s earth: used in a poultice with glycerine (mud pack).
karaya gum—a gem obtained in India and Africa:
used to make wave set preparations.
keratin—the basic constituent molecule of hair and nails.
keratoma—an acquired thickened patch of the epidermis.
keratosis—the presence of circumscribed over- growths of the horny layer.
kidney—the organ which excretes urine. kinky—very curly hair.
knead to work and press with the hands as in massage.
knotting—(wig making) a process in which individual hairs are inserted with a needle into a mesh or net base and locked in place by a hand-twisting or hooking action.
labium—lip.
laboratory—a space containing apparatus for conducting experiments and analysis.
laceration—a tear of the skin.
lacrimal— hone at the front of the orbits.
lacing—(hairstyling) a delicate teasing along the entire strand of hair giving the hair a lacy quality.
lacquer, nail—a thick liquid which forms a glossy film on the nail colored and colorless.
lacteals—the lymphatics of the small intestines that take up the chyle.
lanolin—purified wool fat.
lanugo—the fine hair which covers most of the body.
larynx the upper part of the trachea or wind pipe:
voice box.
latissimus dorsi—a broad, flat muscle of the hack.
layer—(hairstyling) a single horizontal thickness or line of hair.
lemon rinse—lemon juice or citric acid diluted:
used to lighten the color of the hair.
lentigo—a freckle: pigmentation in the skin. lesion an abnormal change caused by injury or disease.
lesser occipital—the nerve supplying muscles at the back of the ear.
leucocyte—a white corpuscle. leucoderma—white patches on the skin. leuconychia—u whitish discoloration Ut nails. levator—a muscle that elevates a part. levator anguli oris—muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it in.
levator labii superioris—muscle that elevates upper lip and dilates the nostrils.
levator palpebrae—muscle that raises upper eyelid.
lift—(hair coloring) to lighten by a barely perceptible amount, without definite color change.
lift, hair—an implement used to lift hair into balance while combing.
ligament—band of fibrous tissue that connects hones or holds an organ in place.
light—(hairstyling) the high area of a convex effect isa hairstyle: volume.
lighten—to partially remove color. lightener—a chemical agent used to lighten or remove the color from hair.
light therapy—the application of light rays for treatment.
limp—tacking firmness or strength.
line of demarcation—a line in the hair which distorts the evenness of the hair either in form or color.
liquefy to reduce to the liquid state.
litmus paper paper strips that are reddened by acids and turned blue by alkalies.
liver—an internal organ which secretes bile for digestion.
lobe—a curved or rounded projection (i.e.. ear lobe).
lockjaw a firm closing of the jaw due to tonic spasm of the muscles of mastication.
long lasting rinse—a semipermanent color. loose scalp a scalp that can be moved easily with
linger manipulations.
lotion a liquid preparation for cosmetic and external medicinal use.
louse—(plural: lice)—pediculous: an animal parasite infesting the hairs of the head.
lubricant—an agent that makes things smooth and slippery: eliminates friction.
lucidum—the clear layer of the epidermis. lung--an organ of respiration. lunula—the half-moon shape at the base of the nail. lustre—glass: gleam: radiance. lustreless—without shine or gloss: dull. luxuriant—abundant.
lymph—a pale yellow coaguluble fluid, produced by the filtration of the blood through the walls of the capillaries, which circulates in the lymphatics of the body.
lymphatic system—lymph llowing through lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes (an accessory to the blood vascular system).

NI
machineless—without a machine; permanent waving by heat from a chemical reaction.
machine made—describes a wig or hairpiece made by machine, rather than by hand.
macula—a spot or discoloration level with the skin; a freckle.
magnet having the power to attract iron bodies. magnify—to increase the size of. magnum—largest bone of the wrist. make-up skin cosmetics; and application thereof. malar the cheek bone. malformation—an abnormal Shape or structure. malignant resistant to treatment; a tumor occurring in severe form.
malpighian the deeper portion of the epidermis. management—directing; carrying on; control; administrating.
mandible—the lowerjawbone.
mandibular nerve the fifth cranial nerve which supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face.
manicure the care of the hands and nails. manicurist—one who specializes in the care of the
hands and nails.
manipulation—working or operating with the hands or by mechanical means.
mantle—the fold of the skin into which the nail root is lodged.
manus—the hand.
marbleizing—(hair coloring) interlacing light and dark sections or shades of hair within one head of hair.
marcel waving—a technique of forming waves in the hair by means of thermal irons.
marrow a soft fatty substance filling the cavities of bone.
mascara—a cosmetic containing synthetic waxes plus lampblack or synthetic dyes, used to darken the eyelashes.
masque—(facials) a jellied, vegetal product, aids the skin in moisture retention.
massage—manipulation of the face or body by rubbing, kneading, tapping, etc., to increase circulation, promote absorption.
massage cream an emollient cream intended for lubrication of the skin, also called tissue creams or nourishing creams.
masseter—a muscle of the jaw used in mastication (chewing).
masseur—a man who practices massage. masseuse—a woman who practices massage. mastication—the act of chewing. mastoid—a process of the temporal bone behind ear.
matching (hairstyling) the meeting of a ridge from one side of the head with a ridge from the opposite side of the head.
matrix—the formative portion of a nail. matter—a substance that occupies space and has weight.
matting—the packing of hair at the scalp area as a result of teasing or hack combing hair.
maxilla, inferior—lower jawbone. maxilla, superior upperjawbone.
maypole curl—a curl made by overlapping a hair strand around the finger with the ends on the outside.
meatus—passage or channel of the ear. medial pertaining to the middle. medium hair—a hair fiber neither especialty large
nor small in circumference, but a thickness about halfway between fine and coarse.
medulla innermost portion or pith of hair fiber. medulla oblongata—the posterior part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord.
medullary pertaining to the innermost portion or medulla.
melanin the tiny grains of pigment in the hair cortex which causes natural hair color.
membrane a thin layer of pliable tissue, serving as a covering.
mentalis—the muscle that elevates the tower lip, and the skin of the chin.
mental nerve—a nerve which supplies the skin of the lower lip and chin.
mesh (foundation) a wig base made of net. metabolism the life process of the cell. metacarpus—the bones of the palm of the hand. metatarsus—the bones which comprise the instep of the foot.
metallic—relating to metal.
metallic dye—a progressive hair dye which is corn posed of a mixture of metallic salts from copper, or lead, or silver, and vegetable dyes.
meter—an instrument used for measuring; the basis of the metric system (equivalent to approximately 39.37 inches).
method—an established procedure or order of doing something.
metric—pertaining to the meter as a measurement. micro very small; slight; millionth part of. microbe—a microorganism; a minute one-celled bacterium.
micrococcus—a minute bacterial cell having a spherical shape.
micron particle visible under the microscope; one millionth of a meter.
microorganism—microscopic plant or animal cell. microscope an instrument for making enlarged views of minute objects.
microspira—pathogenic bacteria which cause cholera.
miliaria an eruption of minute vesicles due to retention of fluid.
miliaria rubra—prickly heat; burning and itching. milium—a small whitish pimple due to a retention of sebum; a whitehead.
millianiperemeter—an instrument measuring a small flow of electric current.
mineral—any inorganic material found in the earth’s crust.
mineral salts—salts derived from an inorganic chemical compound.
mini-braid a very narrow, sometimes pencil slim, strands of hair worn in loops, bands. or wired into fantasy shapes.
mini-fall a loose hanging hairpiece, above shoulder length, attached at the crown: shorter than a fall.
mini-wig—a very short wig with short ends over the entire hairpiece.
minking—(hair coloring) reverse frosting. mitosis the usual process of cell reproduction of the human tissues.
mixing—(hair coloring) mixing two shades together for an in-between color; (wig making) the intermingling of hair of varioas shades and/or lengths.
mixture—a combination of substances in which the ingredients are mechanically mixed, but not chemically changed.
mobility—being easily moved. mode—fashion; style. mold a directional movement which will not
maintain itself, when combed freely, unless it is combed back into its molded line.
mold—(hairstyling) curved or straight lines in a shape creating a pattern.
molded curl—a pin curl, sliced with a comb from a shaping and formed into a curl without lifting the stem from shaping.
molded shape—outline of a straight or curved line, on the head form, scaled to a certain size.
mole—a small spot on the skin.
molecule—the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently.
monilethrix—beaded hair; a condition of constrictions, giving the appearance of a string of beads.
moonlighting—(hair coloring) lightening and interlacing sections of light and dark hair within one head of hair.
moons—(manicuring) a crescent-shaped area exposed at the base of the nail created with the application of nail enamel.
motor nerves—nerves that carry impulses from nerve centers to muscles.
mount (wig making) the intermingling of hair of various shades and/or lengths.
movement a position of a hair motion; a change of place, position or posture; a rhythmic quality.
mucous membrane a membrane, secreting mucus, which lines the passages which lead to the exterior.
mucus—a clear slippery secretion of the mucous membranes produced to moisten and protect those passages.
muscle—the contractile tissue by which movement is accomplished.
muscle strapping—a massage treatment used to reduce fatty deposits.
muscle tone—the normal degree of tension in a muscle.
mutation blonding—(hair coloring) blending of light and darker blonde shades; also known as blonde on blonde.
myocardium—the muscular substance of the heart.
myolog,v a scientific study of muscles.
N
naevus a congenital skin blemish.
nail the horny plate located toward the end of the finger or toe.
nail bed where the body of the nail rests. nail body—where the horny nail blade is upon the nail bed.
nail fold—nail wall.
nail grooves grooves between the nail walls and the nail bed.
nail lacquer a liquid which forms a glossy film on the nail, colored or colorless: nail enamel.
nail matrix—the portion of the nail bed extending beneath the nail root.
nail mold—a form fitting the natural nail into which is placed a plastic compound plus a conversion liquid so that it can be inverted on the nail, thus forming an artificial nail.
nail root located at the base of the nail - nail rouge—a dry or paste polish.
nail wall cuticle covering the sides and base of the nail body.
nail white—a nail cosmetic used to whiten the free edge of the nail: in pencil, paste, or string form.
nape—the back part of the neck. naris—a nostril.
nasalis—a muscle and nerve on the side of the nose, just above the top.
nasocilliary—a nerve affecting the mucous membrane of the nose.
natural growth pattern—the direction (grain) in which the hair grows nalnralty.
neckline—where the hair growth of the head ends and the neck begins.
negative skin test—direct proof that the substance involved is compatible with the body.
nerve—a cord, made up of bundles of nerve fibers, through which impulses are transmitted.
nervous system—made up of the brain, spinal cord. nerves, ganglia and parts of the receptor.
net foundation—a wig base made of silk, cotton. linen, or nylon net.
network—any interconnected chain, group, or system of lines.
neuritis—inflammation of nerves.
neurology—the science of the structure of the nervous system.
neuron—the unit of the nervous system. neutral—indifferent; (in chemistry) neither acid nor alkaline, having a pH of 7.
neutral blonde—a color neither ash nor gold, but rather a beige blonde.
neutralization (in cosmetology) stopping any action or process.
neutralizer—(in cosmetology) refers to the oxidizing agent which stops the action of cold wave lotion, dyes, etc.nit—the egg of a louse attached to a hair. nitrogen—a gaseous element, found in air and living tissue.
no-base—(hair straightening) a milder chemical straightener usually having the base included in the product.
node—a knot or knob; a knuckle. nodosa—having knot like swellings. nodule—a small node. nonpathogenic—non-disease producing. nonresistant—the condition of the hair which does
not repel or offer opposition to penetration or softening.
nonstriated—involuntary muscle function without the action of the will.
nonvascular—not supplied with blood vessels. nostril—an external opening of the nose. noxious poisonous.
nozzle—the projecting end of a hose or container. nucleus—nuclei (plural)—the active center of cells. numectron pads—(facial) used when oil is applied to penetrate the skin by means of electronic movements.
0
obese fat. oblique—slanting.
oblong—an elongated oval shape.
oblong design—concentric oval curves from a given point.
obnoxious—offensive.
obsolete out of date.
occipital—the bone which forms the posterior part of the skull.
occipito-frontalis—the scalp muscle. occiput—the back of the head. occupational disease disease due to certain kinds of employment, often due to contact with chemicals.
oculist—a specialist in diseases of the eyes. oculomotor third cranial nerve; controlling the
eye.
oculus—the eye.
oil bleach—a combination of sulphonated oil, with or without coloring, usually activated just before use by the addition of hydrogen peroxide.
oiled silk—(wig making) used to protect those areas of a man’s hairpiece where an adhesive is placed.
oily hair—hair with an above nornsal secretion of natural scalp oil.
oily skin—skin that is excessively oily due primarily to overactive sebaceous glands.
ointment—a fatty mixture used externally. olfactory—first cranial nerve, the special nerve of smell.
one application, one process, or one step coloring
—a process that decolorizes (bleaches) and colors
in one application.
onychatrophia—atrophy of the nails.
onychauxis—enlargement of the nails. onychia—tnflammation of the matrix of the nail. onychoclasis—breaking of the nail. onychocryptosis—ingrowing nail. onychogryposis—denotes enlargement with increased curvature of the nail.
onycholysis—loosening of the nail without shedding.
onychophagy—biting the nails.
onychophosis—growth of epithelium in the nail bed.
onychophyma degeneration of the nail. onychoptosis—falling off of the nails. onychorrhexis—abnormal brittleness of the nails
and splitting of the free edge. onychosis—any disease of the nails. onyx—a nail of the fingers or toes. opaque not transparent to light.
operator—(beauty salon) one who is able to perform correctly any service rendered professionally in the care of the face, hair. A cosmetologist.
ophthalmic pertaining to the eye. optik—second cranial nerve; the nerve of sight. optimistic—hoping for the best. orangewood stick—a stick made of orangewood used in manicuring.
orbicularis oculi the ring muscle of the eye. orbicularis oris—a muscle of the mouth. orbit the bony cavity of the eyeball; the eye- socket.
organ—a part of the body exercising a function. organic—pertaining to substances derived from living organisms.
organism any living being, animal or vegetable. orifice—a mouth; an opening.
origin the starling point of a nerve; the place of attachment of a muscle to a bone.
osmidrosis—foul smelling perspiration. osmosis—the passage of fluids and solutions
through a membrane. osseous bony. osteology—science of the anatomy. ottoman a footstool. outline—a line that defines a shape.
oval an enclosed curved line with unequal distance from a given central point.
oval design unequal curvature lines from a given central point.
ovary—one of the two reproductive glands in the female, containing the ova.
overlap when tint or lightener is allowed to run on to the previously tinted or lightened hair daring applications.
overlapping curl—a pin curl which partially covers its adjacent curl.
over porosity—a condition where hair reaches an undesirable stage of porosity requiring correction: difficult to color or permanent wave.
over processing overexposure of hair to the action of chemicals or materials used.
oxidation—the addition of oxygen to another substance, or chemical process.
oxidation dye—another term for aniline derivative hair tint.
oxidize—to combine oxygen with another substance.
oxidizing agent—a substance which releases oxygen in a chemical reaction.
oxygen—an element found free in the atmosphere as a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas, also capable of combining with all other elements except inert gases.
p
pack—a special cosmetic formula used to beautify the face, and treat oily conditions.
packing—severe back combing, teasing, etc.:
emphasis at the scalp, giving the strand of hair
almost a rigid quality.
palate the roof of the mouth.
palatine bones—the bones at the back part of the nasal fossae.
palmar—referringto the palm of the hand. palpebra—eyelid.
palpebrarum—pertaining to the eyelids. pancreas a gland connected with the digestive tract.
panel—an area between two partings.
paper curling a method of curling hair, using a triangular piece of paper and a heated pinching iron.
papilla, hair a small elevation at the bottom of the hair follicle.
papillary layer the outer layer of the dermis. papular—characterized by papules. papule—a pimple: a small elevation on the skin. paraffin—a white mineral wax consisting of hydrocarbons.
para dye—an aniline derivative hair tint. parasite an organism living on or in another organism, and drawing its existence therefrom.
parasiticide—a substance that destroys parasites. paronychia—felon: an inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail.
paratoid—a gland near the ear.
paraphenylene-diamine—an aniline derivative used in hair coloring products.
parting a dividing line separating hair. parting silk—(wig making)—fine, strong silk used
for making partings on wigs.
patch test a skin test designed to determine an individual’s sensitivity to chemicals.
pate—top of the head. pathogenic—disease producing. pathology—the study of modifications of the functions and changes in structure caused by disease, something abnormal.
pattern forms—(hairstyling) an outline of head shapes into which the diagram of a style is recorded.
pectoralis—a muscle of the breast. pedicare—the care of the feet and toenails: pedi
cure.
pediculosis capitis—infestation of lice in the hair (on the head).
pedicure—the care of the feet and toenails: pedicare.
pencil—(hair coloring) a temporary hair color (in the shape of a lipstick).
penetrating color—color that enters the hair cortex to effect a change in pigmentation.
pep bags—a trade name for a bleach and peroxide accelerator.
pepper and salt—a term used for a mixture of gray and white hair.
pepsin—an enzyme which digests protein.
percussion—a form of massage consisting of repeated taps of varying force.
perfume—a preparation having an essence, used for scenting.
pericardium—the membranous sac around the heart.
periosteum the fibrous membrane covering the
surface of the bones.
peripheral system the nerve endings in the skin and sense organs.
peristalsis—muscular movements of the digestive tract.
permanent color—color that never shampoos out, nor diminishes over a period of time. but remains until hair grows out.
permanent wave, cold a wave produced by breaking the cross-linkages in the hair molecule by use of a chemical solution (cold wave lotion) and reforming the hair structure on a rod.
permanent wave, heat a system of permanent waving employing heat rather than chemicals.
permanent wave, pin curl—a cold permanent in which the hair is set in pin curls and/or rollers instead of being wound on rods.
permanent waving—the alteration of the hair structure by a process of softening, re shaping. and then hardening into its new form.
permeable—capable of passing fluids through its pores.
peroxide—short term for hydrogen peroxide.
peroxide rinse—a rinse used to lighten the color of the hair slightly.
peroxometer—(hydrometer)—a device which measures the strength of hydrogen peroxide.
personality—the physical and mental qualities in a person.
perspiration—sweat: the fluid excreted from the sweat glands.
petrissage the kneading movements in massage. petrolatum—vaseline: a yellow mixture of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.
peruke—an old fashioned name for a wig.
pharynx—the upper portion of the digestive tube. behind the nose and mouth.
pH (potential of hydrogen)—the symbol for hydrogen ion concentration: the pH scale expresses the relative degree of acidity or alkalinity in numbers from 0 to 14 (these numbers are actually the negative logarithm of the number ofhydrogen gram-ions per liter).
pH papers indicators of pH by change of color.
phenol—carbolic acid; dilute solution is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.
phosphorus—an element found in the bones, muscles and nerves.
phyma—a swelling on the skin larger than a tuber cle.
physical relating to the body.
physical change altering a substance in form or state without changing chemical composition.
physics—science that deals with matter and motion. physiognomical haircutting cutting hair into a particular hairstyle and adapting it to an individual, with relation to facial features.
physiology the science of the functions of living things.
physiotherapy the use of natural forces such as light, heat, air, water, and exercise in the treat ment of disease.
pigment—any organic coloring matter.
pigmentation—the deposition of pigment in the skin.
pilose—covered with hair. pilus hair.
pimple—any small elevation of the skin.
pin curl—a strand of hairs organized into a flat ribbon form, and wound into a series of continuous untwisted circles within circles.
pit a surface depression.
pith—the innermost portion of the hair shaft.
pituitary a ductless gland located at the base of the brain which produces various secretions essential to basic body functions.
pityriasis—dandruff.
pityriasis capitis simplex a scalp inflammation marked by dry dandruff.
pityriasis pilaris—a scalp inflammation characterized by an eruption of papules surrounding the hair follicles.
pityriasis steatoides a scalp inflammation marked by oily type of dandruff.
pivot—the exact point from which the hair is directed in forming a curvature shaping.
pivot point a given point; origin or beginning of design.
planned pattern—a circular formation or design to be followed in order to achieve definite effects.
plasma—the fluid part of the blood and lymph.
plastic applicator—a squeeze bottle used for applying tints, lightener, and permanent waving lotion.
plastic cap—a cap made of plastic used as a head covering to help hold in the body heat when coloring and/or permanent waving: (also protects against the effects of air conditioning during the processing or developing time.)
platelets—blood cells which aid in the formation of clots.
platysma—a broad thin muscle in the neck area.
pledget—absorbent cotton wrapped in gauze (about the size of a twenty-five cent piece).
plexus a network of nerves or vines. pluck—a firm sudden pull.
pneumogastric nerve—tenth cranial nerve relating to the lungs and the stomach.
podiatrist one who treats diseases of the feet. point knotting—(wig making) a method of knotting which ensures that only the points of the hair remain as part of the finished work.
pomade—a lubricant for the hair which imparts sheen.
pompadour—horizontal waves set and combed without a part, with or without height.
pomphus—a whitish elevation of the skin. pore—a small opening of the sweat glands of the skin.
porosity ability of the hair to absorb liquids. porous—full of pores; permeable to liquids. porous hair a hair condition which is character ized by pore-like spaces between the overlapping scales of the cuticle layer.
portable—carried easily.
position—location of special line of effect; location of scale relating to the head form.
posterior situated behind.
posterior auricular—a nerve which regulates muscles in the posterior surface of the ear.
postiche an artificial hairpiece; curls, braids, wiglets, falls, cascades, or other extra hairpieces used in creating coiffures.
posture—the position of the body.
potassium hydroxide an alkali used in the manufacture of soft soaps.
pour-it-on tints—hair coloring preparations which are applied in the same manner as shampooing hair. Require no partings, sectioning, or subsechoning.
powder hase—a finishing cream used before applying make-up.
powder bleach—a fast acting oxygen-releasing agent such as sodium perborate usually mixed with peroxide to form a strong bleaching paste.
powder dry shampoo—a substance used to cleanse the hair, employing a mixture of oris root, borax, whitemeal, etc. (No soap or water.)
prebleaching a decolorizing process, preliminary to the application of the desired color.
precipitation—the formation of an insoluble sub stance.
predisposition—susceptibility to disease; allergy. predisposition test—a skin test designed to determine an individual’s sensitivity to chemicals.
prelighten to lighten in preparation for a second coloring procedure.
pressing—a method of straightening kinky hair with a heated comb or iron.
presoftener a mixture of peroxide and ammonia applied to the hair in order to make easier the penetration of tint into the hair. Insures complete coverage.
preventive—warding off. primary—first.
problem hair—hair that is difficult to color, permanent wave or straighten.
procerus pyramidalis nasi muscle of the nose. processing time—the period of time required for a
chemical action upon the hair to achieve the desired results.
profession—vocation; work which requires special knowledge and training.
profuse abundant.
prognosis—the foretelling of the probable course of a disease.
progressive dyes hair color restorers; color develops with continued applications.
pronate—to bend forward. prong—the round rod of the thermal iron. prophylactic—preventing disease. prophylaxis—the preventidn of disease. proportion a harmonious relationship or balance; scale or size.
prostration—the state of being weak. protective base a petroleum base, applied to the hair and scalp as necessary in order to protect them from the active agents contained in the chemical hair straightener.
protectors—articles or equipment which protect a patron of a beauty salon. (Neck strips, shampoo cape, ear pads, etc.)
protein—a complex organic substance, present in all living tissues, necessary in the diet.
protinator—a trade name for an agent which accelerates the release of oxygen in bleaching.
protrude—to project forward or outward. psoriasis—a skin disease with red patches, covered with adherent white scales.
psychic relating to the mind.
psychology the science of the mind and its functions.
pterygium a forward growth of the eponychium with adherence to the surface of the nail.
pterygoideus the inlernus and externus muscle between mandible and cheek bone.
ptomaine a poison produced during the decomposition of vegetable matter.
puberty—the period of life in which the organs of reproduction are developed.
pull test—a test to determine the degree of elasticity of the hair.
pulmonary relating to the lungs.
pumice a light, rough volcanic glass used in manicuring (available as stone or powder).
pungent—acrid; caustic; stinging.
pupil—a small opening in the iris of the eye through which light enters.
purification—freeing from foreign matter. pus—a fluid consisting of a liquid containing leucocytes and the debris of dead cells and tissue elements.
pusher—a steel instrument used to loosen the cuticle from the nail.
pustule—an inflamed pimple containing pus. PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)—a protein like compound to repair damaged hair.
pylorus—an opening found between the stomach and the small intestine.
pyloric—relating to the pylorus. pyogenic—pus forming. pyramidalis nasi muscle of the nose.
quadrant—any of the four parts into which something is divided by two real or imaginary lines that intersect each other at right angles.
quadratus lahii superioris—a muscle of the upper lip.
qualitative scale—a substance in the quantity necessary for compatibility to other substances; the amount needed to arrive at 100% of a formula.
quarantine—a state of enforced isolation to prevent disease.
quaternary ammonium compounds—organic salts of ammonia which are powerful germicides, sold under trade names such as Barbicide, Nutrisept, etc.
R
radial nerve—a nerve which affects the arm and hand.
radiation—giving off light or heat rays.
radius the outer and smaller bone of the forearm; an imaginary line from the center ofa circle to the outside curve.
raking action—continuous short strokes, with a comb, or brush, on the surface of the hair, used during the combout of a hairstyle.
ramus—a branch of an artery, vein or nerve.
rash—a skin eruption having little or no elevation. ratting same as teasing.
reconditioning—the application of a special chemical to the hair in order to improve its condition.
rectum—the terminal portion of the digestive tube. rectus the name of small muscles of the eye.
reddish cast—a tinge of red.
reduction (chemistry) the opposite of oxidation. i.e., the process of adding hydrogen to a substance or chemical process.
refined hair (wig making) hair that has been treated with acid to make it more pliable for use in wigs and hair pieces.
reflex—an involuntary nerve reaction. rejuvenate—to make young again.
relapse slipping back to a former condition.
relaxation—the act of being loose and less tense.
relaxer—a chemical applied to the hair to remove the natural curl.
Rembrandt look (hair coloring) three color tones in same cast are used to lighten hair for a graduation of color. Also called three-dimensional shading.
remover—(dye slain) a preparation used to remove dye stains from skin; (hair coloring) a dye solvent, a chemical compound used to remove artificial color from the hair; (manicuring) acetone, a chemical compound used to remove nail enamel from nails.
renal—relating to a kidney.
reprocess—to repeat a related series of changes to produce a definite result.

research—investigation of experimentation aimed at the discovery of products, facts or principles.
residue—that which remains after a part is taken. resilient—elastic.
resistance the difficulty of chemical solutions in penetrating the hair shaft.
respiration breathing: inhaling air into the lungs and expelling it.
respiratory system—consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
rete—interlacing of either blood vessels or nerves. retention papers—an end paper used in permanent waving and hair setting.
reticular layer—the inner layer of the corium. retina—the sensitive membrane of the eye which receives the image formed by the lens.
retouch—application of hair tint or hair straightener to new growth of hair.
retrahens aurem—a muscle behind the ear. reverse curl—a curl which is placed on the head in the opposite direction to which it was formed:
also used in some localities to refer to a backward curl.
revert to return to a former condition (kinky. curly or straight).
rewave—a permanent wave given to hair which still retains some of the former permanent, which is not effective.
rhagades chaps on the skin.
rhythm—speed and motion of a movement: also the arrangement of a variety of movements.
rickettsia a type of pathogenic microorganism. ridge—(fingernails) an elevation in the structure of the nail body: (hairstyling) an elevation or crest of a wave.
ridge curl—a pin curl placed immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave.
ridge end curl—a ridge following a shaping against which is placed a series of overlapping pin curls.
right angle-—an angle whose sides are perpendicular to each other: a 90 degree angle.
ringed hair a variety of canities in which the hair appears white or colored in rings.
ringlet—similar to a pin curl: a small curl. ringworm—a disease of the skin which appears in circular lesions and is contagious.
rinse—the act of cleansing hair with water after shampooing, processing, or developing: also the liquid used in treating hair: a temporary color applied in liquid form.
risorius—a muscle at the side of the mouth. rod—(permanent waving) a cylindrical form of
various diameters and lengths, around which the softened hair is wound so it can be reformed in the desired structure: (thermal waving) the round solid prong of a curling iron.
roller—a cylindrical object, around which hair may be wound, used in setting hair.
roller clip—a metal pin about three inches in length used to secure a hair roller.
roller curl—a wet strand of hair wound around a cylindrical object in a croquiguole fashion (a variation of a stand-up curl).
roller pin—a plastic pin about three inches in length, used to secure a hair roller.
root the foundation or beginning of any part.
roots—(hair coloring) the new growth showing the natural color.
rotary—circular motion of the fingers as in massage.
rouge—any of various cosmetics for coloring cheeks or lips including cream, liquid, powder and cake rouge, lipstick, etc.
round curling—a process of rolling the hair tightly and evenly around a heated curling iron, starting at the ends.
ruffing—back combing with a brush: (haircutting) a technique of separating hairs with the fingers before cutting split ends.
saliva—the secretion of the salivary glands.
salivary gland—the gland in the mouth secreting spittle.
sallow—having a yellowish color.
salt—a compound formed by the union of a base with an acid: also table salt which is sodium chloride.
sanitary—maintaining cleanliness in relation to health.
sanitation—methods to prevent disease by maintaining sanitary conditions.
sanitize—to make sanitary.
saponify—to make into soap.
saprophyte—a microorganism which grows on dead matter.
scab a crust formed on the surface of a sore.
scabies—a skin disease caused by an animal parasite.
scale—(hairstyling) to section and subsection hair prior to setting: size of shaping.
scales small thin plates of horny epidermis, forming the outer surface of hair, skin, etc.
scalp—the skin covering of the cranium.
scalp cream—a special cream designed to help restore some of the natural oils: also called pomade: may include sulfur or other dandruff combatants.
scalp lotion—a solution containing products to prevent dryness, combat dandruff. etc.
scaphoid bone—bone of the tarsus and the carpus. scar—a mark remaining after a wound has healed. scarf skin—the outermost protective layer of the skin: also called the cuticle.
scissors—two-bladed instruments used for cutting. typically smaller than shears.
serum-pox—impetigo contagiosa.
sculpture curl (pin curl)—a strand of hairs organized into a flat ribbon form and wound, with its end on the inside, into a series of continuous untwisted circles within circles and secured in place with a curl clip.
scurf—thin dry scales or scabs on the scalp.
sebaceous—oily: fatty.
sebaceous cyst a distended oily or fatty sac. sehaceous glands—oil glands of the skin. seborrhea—over-action of the sebaceous glands. sehorrhea capitis—seborrhea of the scalp: dandruff: pityriasis.
seborrhea oleosa—excessive oiliness of the skin. seborrhea sicca—greasy scales or crusts, due to
over-action of the sebaceous glands: pityriasis. sebum—oily secretions of the sebaceous glands. secretion—a product developed by a gland for a
bodily function.
sectioning—dividing the hair into separate parts. segment—a section or separate portion cut out by a dividing line.
semipermanent hair coloring—hair coloring that lasts through several shampoos but diminishes gradually over a number of weeks.
semiwave—a wave formed at a 45 angle to the part.
senility—state of being old.
sensation—a feeling arising as the result of the stimulation of an afferent nerve.
sensitivity—the state of being easily affected by chemicals or conditions.
sensory nerve—a nerve carrying sensations. sepsis—the presence of various pus-forming organisms in the blood or tissues.
septum—a dividing wall: a partition. serratus anterior—a muscle of the chest assisting
in breathing and in raising the arm.
set (hairstyling> to form hair into a pattern of curls or waves to produce a style.
shadow—(hairstyling) the low area of a concave effect in a hairstyle: indentation.
shadow wave a shaping which resembles the outline of a fingerwave but does not have a definite ridge and formation.
shaft the long slender part of the hair above the scalp.
shampoo to wash the scalp and hair with soap and water.
shampoo bleach a hair lightener without pigment: contains peroxide and shampoo.
shampoo tint—a product that both cleans the hair and imparts colorat the same time. Also known as color shampoo.
shaper—a razor-like device used for shaping or cutting the hair.
shaping—(haircutting) shortening and thinning the hair to style Or to the contour of the head: (hairstyI ing> the formation of uniform arcs or curves.
providing a base for fingerwaves, pin curls and
rollers.
shaping—(hair set) a directional movement which will maintain and hold its original line after comb ing freely.
shears—an instrument used for cutting cloth and other substances: larger than a scissors.
sheath—a covering surrounding some Organ. sheen gloss: brightness: shine. shingling—cutting the hair close to the nape and gradually longer toward the crown.
shortwave—a form of high frequency carrent used in permanent hair removal: electrolysis.
singeing process of lightly burning hair ends with a lighted wax taper: treatment for split ends.
single application coloring a process that lightens and colors hair in one application.
sinus a cavity oru hollow in bone. skeletal muscles—muscles connected to the skeleton.
skeleton the bony framework of the body. skin—the external covering of the body. Skip wave a ridge following a shaping, against which is placed a series of overlapping pin curls. then repeat the shaping, ridge and curls placed in the same manner.
skull—the framework of the head. sleek—to render smooth, soft, and glossy.
slicing—(hairstyling) carefully lifting a section of hair from a shaping, with a comb, in preparation for making a pin curl.
slithering—tapering the hair to graduated lengths with scissors or razor.
smaller occipital—sensory nerve affecting skin behind the ear.
snarls—tangles, as of hair.
snowflaking—(hair coloring) the use of platinum or silvertones on selected strands of hair to highlight darker natural shade.
soap—compound of fatty acid or oil with an alkaline base as contrasted with a synthetic detergent.
soap cap a combination of prepared tint and shampoo which is applied to the hair like a regular shampoo. Adds color and brightness to faded hair. Used as a final step in hair coloring.
soapless shampoo a synthetic shampoo made with sulfonated oil, alcohol, mineral oil and water.
sodium—a metallic element of the alkaline group. sodium bicarbonate—baking soda: an antacid which also relieves burns, bites, etc.
sodium carbonate washing soda: used to prevent corrosion of metallic instruments when added to boiling water.
sodium hydroxide—a caustic used in some chemical hair relaxers: caustic soda.
soft water water which readily lathers with soap because the dissolved minerals have been removed.
softening—the application of a chemical to hair to make it more receptive to hair coloring, permanent waving or hair straightening.
solid any substance which does not flow. soluble—capable of being dissolved. solute—the dissolved substance in a solution. solution a homogeneous mixture of one or more
substances dissolved in another.
solvent—the substance in which the solute is dis solved.
space base an elongated stem creating a wider area between two rows of pin curls.
spatula—a tiexible implement for handling creams. specialist one who devotes himself to some special branch of learning, art or practice.

spinal accessory eleventh cranial nerve. spinal column—the backbone or vertebral column. spinal cord—the portion of the central nervous system contained within the spinal or vertebral canal.
spinal nerves—the nerves arising from the spinal cord.
spine—the backbone. spiral—coil; winding around a center.
spiral rod a rod with which the hair is wound in a spiral manner for a permanent wave.
,piral winding—winding the hair on a rod from the scalp to the ends.
spirillum—curved bacterium.
spleen—a large vascular ductless gland between the stomach and the diaphragm.
Split ends—a condition of splitting of the hair ends giving a damaged and abused feathery appearance. Trichoptilosis.
spongy—porous.
spore—a tiny bacterial body which can withstand unfavorable conditions.
Spot bleaching—applying bleach to correct areas insufficiently lightened in order to produce even results.
spot tinting corrective work in hair coloring; applying tint to areas insufficiently colored in order to produce even results.
spray machine—(facials) used to apply a very fine mist of astringent, which massages the nerve ends as it hits the skin.
iquama—an epidermic scale made of thin, flat cells.
stabilized—not readily changeable (i.e., hydrogen peroxide treated to prevent decomposition).
stand-up curls—(cascade)—a strand of hair held directly up from the scalp and wound with a large center opening in a croquignole fashion and secured in a standing position.
steam—part of a procedure to open pores during a facial treatment. Vapor; mist.
steamer, facial—an apparatus used for steaming the face.
steamer, scalp—an apparatus used for steaming the scalp. Hair and scalp treatments.
steatoma—a sebaceous cyst; a fatty tumor. stem direction—the direction in which the stem moves from the base to the first arc.
stem, pin curl—that part of the pin curl between the base and the first arc of the circle.
step-up—to use an accelerator to quicken action. sterile—free from all living organisms. sterilization—the process of making sterile; the destruction of germs.
sterilizer—an agent or receptacle for sterilization. sterilizer, cabinet (dry)—a closed receptacle containing chemical vapors to keep sterilized objects ready for use.
sterilizer, wet—a receptacle containing a disinfectant for the purpose of sterilizing implements by immersing.
sterno—cleido-mastoideus—a muscle of the neck which depresses and rotates the head.
sternomastoid—pertaining to the mastoid process. stimulant—arouses organic activity. stimulation increased functional activity. stomach—the dilated portion of the alimentary canal, in which the first process of digestion takes place.
straight wave—a wave running parallel to the part. strand—a group of hairs held parallel or twisted to form a unit.
strand test—a preliminary test on a strand of hairs before or during a treatment to determine the required development time and the ability of the hair to withstand the effects of chemicals.
stratum—layer of tissue.
stratum corneum—horny layer of the skin. stratum germinativum—the deepest layer of the epidermis resting on the corneum.
stratum granulosum—granular layer of the skin. stratum lucidum—clear layer of the skin. stratum mucosum—malpighian layer of the skin. streak (hair goods) a short length of hair in an
obviously lighter, darker, or contrasting color than the wearer’s, attached to a bobby pin or comb for securing in the hair to give the appearance of streaking.
streaking—lightening broad sections of hair attractively placed around the face and head.
streptococcus—pus-forming bacteria; blood poisoning.
stress—pressure; tension. stretch base—see space base.
stretch wig—a wig with a completely elasticized foundation that will expand to fit a wide range of head sizes.
striated—striped; voluntary muscle. stripping—the removal of color from the hair shaft; bleaching.
stroking—a gliding movement over a surface; effleurage.
structure—construction; manner of building. sty—inflammation of one of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid.
styptic—an agent causing contraction of tissue; used to stop bleeding.
subcutaneous—under the skin. subcutis—subcutaneous tissue; under the dermis. subdermis—subcutaneous tissue of skin. sublingual—under the tongue.
submental artery—supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.
subsection—making sections within a section; scale.
subsidiary—supplementary.
suction—(facials) a machine which “vacuum cleans” the skin. A small suction cup glides along the skin to remove blackheads and other waste materials from open pores.
sudamen—a disorder of the sweat glands with obstruction of their ducts.
sudor—sweat; perspiration. sudoriferous glands—sweat glands of the skin.
sulfonated oil—an organic substance prepared with sulfuric acid used as a base in soapless shampoos.
sunburn—excessive exposure to the sun. sunburst (hair bleaching) a heavy frosting. sunshining—(sun streaking) lightening and interlacing sections of hair in more than one shade from the root Out.
superior maxillary—the upperjawbone. supporting curl—a pin curl made in the same direction of the front line curl.
suppuration—the formation of pus. supraorbital—above the orbit or eye. supratrochlear nerve above the trochlea of the
superior oblique muscle (between the eyes on both sides of the upper nose).
susceptible capable of being easily acted on. suspension—a solution of coarse particles which settle out on standing.
swab—absorbent cotton wrapped about the end of a stick; used primarily for the application of solutions.
swathe—(wig making) a knotted hairpiece usually worn at the nape.
swirl a hairstyle moving diagonally across the back of the head.
switch long wefts of hair; tail-like in formation, mounted with a loop at the end; braid.
sycosis chronic pustular inflammation of the hair follicles.
sycosis vulgaris—chronic pustular inflammation of the hair follicles of the beard.
sympathetic nervous system—controls the involuntary muscles which affect respiration, circulation, and digestion.
symptom evidence of disease or physical disturbance.
synovia—lubricsting fluid secreted by the lining membranes ofjoints.
synthetic—compounded artificially from other substances by a chemical process.
synthetic hair—any manmade, hair-like fiber, with trade names such as nylon, dynel, kanekalon, modacrylic, myerlon, etc.
system—a group of body organs that together perform one or more vital functions; also, an organized set of principles for learning or applying procedures.
systematic—proceeding according to regular method.
T
tactile corpuscle—nerve endings, affecting touch, found within the skin.
tail comb—a comb, half of which is shaped into a slender, tail-like end.
taper—to diminish gradually toward a point. tapering—(hair cutting) cutting a head of hair so that individual hairs of varying lengths are uniformly blended and the bulk of the hair is greatly reduced at the hair ends.
tapotement—a massage movement using a short,
quick slapping or tapping mosement.
tapping a massage movement; striking lightly with the partly flexed fingers.
taut—tensely stretched.
teasing combing small sections of hair from the ends toward the scalp, causing the shorter hair to mat at the scalp, forming a base. Also known as ratting or French lacing.
technique—a method of accomplishing a desired aim.
technical—relating to a practical technique.
temple—the flattened space on the side of the forehead.
temporal bone—the bone at the side and base of the skull.
temporalis—the temporal muscle.
temporary color—any nonpermanent color that may be removed by simple shampooing, such as color rinses, color shampoos, crayons. etc.
tendon—fibrous cord connecting muscle with bone.
tension—stress caused by stretching; firmness in winding.
tepid—neither hot nor cold.
terminal—pertaining to the end or extremity.
test curl used in permanent waving to determine the correct processing time.
test, hair dye—a test made behind the ear, or in the bend of the arm, for predisposition to the dye used; to determine the reaction of the dye upon the sample strand regarding color, timing, and breakage.
tetanus continuous contraction of the muscles; lockjaw.
textometer—a device used to measure the elasticity and reaction of the hair to alkali solutions.
texture of hair—the general quality as to coarse, medium, or fine.
thenar—the fleshy prominence of the palm corresponding to the base of the thumb.
theory—a reasoned and probable explanation.
therapeutic lamp—an electrical apparatus producing any of the various rays used for skin and scalp treatments. Heat lamp.
therapy—the science of healing. thermal—pertaining to heat.
thermal irons—marcel irons; curling irons.
thermometer—any device for measuring temperature.
thermostat—an automatic device for controlling temperature.
thickening agent a substance which thickens watery liquids.
thin hair—sparse hair growth in number of hairs per square inch.
thinning, hair—decreasing the thickness of the hair by use of razor, scissors (effileing) or thinning Scissors,
thinsors—a brand name for a scissors specially designed to remove bulk from hair by blunt cutting while leaving tapered ends.
tbio (ammonium thioglycolate)—a short term for the chemical employed in breaking the cross-linkages of the hair in chemical straightening and cold waving.
thorax—the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen; the chest.
thrombocyte—a blood platelet which aids in clotting.
thyroid gland—a large ductless gland in the neck affecting growth and metabolic rate.
tincture—an alcoholic solution of a medicinal substance.
tinea—ringworm.
tinea capitis—ringworm of the scalp. tinea sycosis—barber’s itch.
tinea unguium—ringworm of the nail. tinge—a slight shade or touch of color.
tint—to give a coloring to; pertaining to hair dyeing; to color the hair by means of a hair dye.
tipping—hair coloring wherein the darkening or lightening is confined to the very ends of small strands of hair.
tissue—an aggregate of cells of a particular kind. together with their intercellular substance, forming one of the structural materials of the body.
tissue, connective binding and supporting tissue. tissue, facial—a soft textured paper used for removing creams during the facial procedure.
tone—(anatomy) healthy functioning of the body; (coloring) hue; color; shade.
tone on tone—(hair coloring) hair is divided into two sections that are lightened and toned to be two shades of the same color cast.
toner—pastel or diluted form of any tint color; to be applied to prelightened hair.
topette—wig; wiglet; cascade; fall.
tortoise shelling—(hair coloring) use of varying shades of golden blonde and platinum on dark and medium dark hair for contrast.
touch up—the process of coloring the new growth on tinted or lightened hair; or to straighten the new growth of curly hair.
toupee—a small wig used to cover the top or crown of the head.
toxemia—blood poisoning. toxic—poisonous.
trachea—windpipe.
trachoma—a contagious disease of the eyelids
characterized by small granular elevations.
transformation—(wiggery) artificial band of hair worn over a person’s own hair.
transparent—admitting the passage of light.
transverse—(facial) an artery supplying the skin. the parotid gland and the masseter muscle.
trapezium—the first bone of the second row of the carpus.
>rapezius—muscle that draws the head backward and sideways.
iangularis—depressor anguli uris; a muscle that ,ulls down corners of the mouth.
ticeps—a muscle having three heads.
trichology—the science of the hair and its diseases. trichonosus—any disease of the hair.
trichophyton—a fungus parasite responsible for ringworm.
trichophytosis—ringworm of the skin and scalp, due to growth of a fungus parasite.
trichoptilosis—a splitting of the hair ends, giving them a feathery appearance.
trichosis—abnormat growth of hair. trifacial—the fifth cranial nerve. trim—cutting the hair slightly without altering the
shape of the existing lines.
true skin—the curium.
tubercle a rounded, solid elevation on the skin or membrane.
tumor—swelling; an abnormal enlargement. turbinal a bone in the nose. turning—(wig making) the process by which hair
cuttings or combings are arranged so that the root ends are together.
tweezers—a pair of small forceps to remove hair from skin.
tweezing—removing hair with use of a tweezer. twice-in-weft—a more widely spaced method of weaving than once-in weaving.
two-dimensional shading hair is divided into two sections that are lightened and toned to be two shades of the same color cast.
U
ulcer—an open sore not caused by a wound. ultra violet—invisible rays of the spectrum, beyond the violet rays, used for treatment of skin conditions, artificial sun tan, etc.
unadulterated—pure.
underprocessing— insufficient exposure of the hair to the chemical action of the permanent waving solution, resulting in little or no change in the structure and condition of the hair.
undulation—a wave-like movement or shape. unguis—the nail of a finger or toe. unguium, tinea—ringworm of the nails.
unipolar a treatment in which one electrode of a direct current is applied to the body.
unit—a single thing or value.
United States Pharmacopeia—an official hook of drug and medicinal standards.
unsanitary—unclean enough to endanger health; contaminated.
upsweep—a hairstyle combed up from the nape toward the crown.
upwards towards the top of the head. uric acid—a crystalline acid contained in the urine. uridrosis—the presence of urea in sweat. urine—the fluid secreted by the kidneys.
U.S.P. see United States Pharmacopeia.
V
vaccine—any substance used fir preventive inoculation.
vagus—pneunsogastric nerve.
valve a structure which temporarily closes a passage or permits flow in one direction only.
vapor—the gaseous state of a liquid or solid. variable—changeable; completely alterable. variation—changes or differences in procedures or
styles.
varicose veins—swollen or knotted veins. variegating—(hair coloring) lightening small
strands or sections of hair throughout the head from the root Out (frosting).
vascular—pertaining to a vessel for the conveyance of blood.
vaseline—a trade mark for petrolatum (a neutral, odorless, tasteless substance obtained from petro leum and used in ointments and dressings).
vasoconstrictor—a nerve which causes narrowing of blood vessels.
vasodilator—a nerve which causes expansion of the blood vessels.
vegetable tints hair dyes or hair rinses comprised of Egyptian henna, indigo and other vegetable derivatives.
vein—a canal or tube in the circulatory system carrying blood toward the heart.
vena cava—one of the large veins which carry the blood to the right auricte of the heart.
ventilate—to expose to fresh air for purifying. curing or refreshing.
ventilated—(wig making) describes a method of construction of a handmade wig or hairpiece.
ventricle a small cavity in the brain or heart. vermin—parasitic insects (e.g., lice and bedbugs). verruca a wart.
vertebra—a bony segment of the spinal column. vertex the crown of the head. vertical—in an upright position, usually described
in terms of up and down as opposed to left and right.
vesicle—a small blister or sac.
vessel—tube or canal in which blood is contained or circulated.
vibration—shaking; periodic motion in alternately opposite directions as in a massage movement.
vibrator—un electric massage apparatus causing a shaking sensation on the body, producing stiniula ticin.
vibrissae—stiff hairs in the nostrils. vibroid a vibratory movement in massage.
vinegar—a liquid containing acetic acid; used as a rinse to remove soup curds from the hair and to disentangle hair.
violet ray—the pinkish violet discharge front high frequency apparatus used for scalp and facial stimulations.
virgin hair—normal hair which has had no previous chemical treatments.
virulent—poisonous, disease-producing microorganisms.
virus the causative agent ofun infectious disease. viscid—sticky or adhesive.
viscosity—the degree of density, thickness, stickiness, and adhesiveness of a substance.
vitality—the power of enduring or continuing.
vitamin organic substances present in a very small quantity in natural foodstuff, which are essential to normal metabolism.
vitiligo—milky-white spots of the skin. vogue—fashion; custom; style. vola—the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot. volatile—easily evaporating; not permanent. volume (chemistry) space occupied. as measured in cubic units; also the strength of solutions like hydrogen peroxide measured in the gas released per volume of solution; (hairstyling) a raised quantity or mass of hair creating a silhouette.
voluntary—under the control of the will. vomer the thin bone between the nostrils. vulgaris, acne common pimple.
w
warm—(hair coloring) containing red or gold tones.
wart—a circumscribed hypertrophy of the papillac of the curium, covered by thickened epidermis.
water softener—a chemical or a zeolite tank that removes the salts which cause hard water.
wave the design formed by arranging the hair in a semicircle between two ridges going in opposite directions.
wave bang—a bang which has a wave formation in
wave, cold—a method of permanent waving requiring the use of chemicals rather than heat.
wave, croquignole marcel a wave produced with a thermal iron.
wave, finger—producing a wave pattern in wet hair through the use of fingers. comb and waving lotions.
Wave, permanent—u wave produced by breaking down the hair structure by chemicals or heat and reforming into a wave pattern.
wave, pin curl—a method in which the direction of rows of pin curls are alternated in order to form a wave pattern.
waves—hair formations resulting in a side-by-side series of ess (s)-tike movenments; or semiciretes going in opposite directions.
wave, semi a wave formed at a 45 degree angle to the part.
ssave, skip a pattern formed by a combination of alternating ridges and pin curls.
wave, straight—a hair wave running parallet to the
part.
weaving, hair—a process of sewing a base of nylon thread into the remaining natural hair and tying wetted hairs to that base to eliminate the appearance of baldness.
weft an artificial section of woven hair used for practice work or as a substitute for natural hair.
weft wig—a wig made of hair first stitched into a welt, then sewn to the wig base; a machine nude wig.
wen a sebaceous cyst, usually on the scalp.
wheal a raised ridge on the skin, caused by a blow or a bite of an insect.
whitehead—milium (a small whitish lump on the skin due to the retention ol secretion in an oil gland duct).
white henna—a powdered magnesium carbonate having no bleaching qualities used as a hinder in bleaching paste. etc.
whorl a cowlick; a spiral turn causing a tuft of hair which goes contrary to the usual growth of the hair.
widow’s peak a hairline having a V shaped point at the middle of the forehead.
wig an artificial covering for the head consisting of a network of interwoven hair on a netting.
wig bar a counter where ready-to-wear wigs and hairpieces are tried on and purchased.
wig block a head-shaped block of styroftant. plastic. or cork-tilled cloth.
wig cleaner—a dry cleaning Ilaid for cleaning wigs.
wiglet—a hairpiece with a flat base which is used in special areas of the head for hairstyling.
sig net—a narrow-meshed, soft net of silk. cotton. linen, or nylon used as part of the base of a wig or hairpiece.
winding, croquignole winding the hair under from the hair ends towards the scalp.
winding, spiral—winding the hair trottt the scalp to the ends in a coil-like fashion.
windpipe—trachea (the breath passage front the larynx to the lungs).
wiry hair—a hair liber that is strong and resilient; difficult to form into a wave ftwmation; having a smooth, hard, glossy surface.
wool crepe a substance used in place of end papers to control hair when winding in permanent waving. pin curling, and roller setting.
wrapping—synonymous with winding; mitre generally identified with permanent waving.
wrinkle—a small ridge or a furrow.
xanthoma—a skin disease characterized by the presence of yellow nodules around the eyelids.
yak hair—hair from a long-haired ox of Tibet
sometimes used in making wigs and hairpieces.
lotions and creams.
zinc sulphocarbonate—a fine white powder used as an antiseptic and astringent in deodorant preparations.
zygoma—a bone of the skull which extends along the front or side of the face, below the eye.
,.ygomaticus—a muscle that draws the upper lip upward and outward.
zeolite—a chemical of natural or synthesized silicates used in water softening.
zinc sulphate—a salt employed as an astringent in






 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Aberration (Shaft) -An abnormal or unusual condition of the hair shaft due to a genetic disorder, disease or environmental damage.
Aggregation (Pigment)- The appearance of the pigment granules when they are concentrated in a mass that has a recognizable form.
Amorphous Literally,- “without form”; a form that does not fit into a category of a defined form pattern.
Anagen-
The active growth phase of a hair root in the hair growth cycle. The root of an anagen hair is elongated, is covered with a root sheath, and is fully pigmented.
Archetype- A model against which other similar objects can be compared to establish degrees of similarity or dissimilarity.
Artifacts- Features that are the result of damage,optical distortion, or other factors; not a true feature.
Attribute-Synonym for characteristic.
Buckling- A disruption of the hair shaft demonstrating itself as an abrupt change in direction with or without a slight twist. This feature may be due to genetic factors, or it may result from damage (i.e., hair treatments).
Catagen- The transitional phase of the hair root from the active growth phase (anagen) to the resting growth phase (telogen) in the hair growth cycle. The root of a catagen hair may have a club-shaped root, a sparse amount of pigment, and a dried up root sheath.
Categorize -Identify the variate class to which a hair characteristic belongs; scoring of a study hair through use of the archetypes in this atlas.
Characteristic
-A microscopic or macroscopic feature, attribute, or trait of a hair.
Characterize- The process of examining and describing the characteristics of a hair or a set of hairs.

Class A category of hair- (e.g., scalp hair, dog hair) or a group of hairs defined by the presence in each hair of all the class characteristics that define the class, e.g., an East Asian heritage hair type.
Class Characteristic- A characteristic shared by all members of a class. It may vary in some way from one member to the next (e.g., size, shape, color, position) but is present in each member of the class. When variation is present, the characteristic may be used as part of a set of other class characteristics also exhibiting some variation to establish a set of characteristics of which the aggregate constitutes a unique set of characteristic variates that may allow for individualization of the object bearing those characteristics.
Club Hair- A hair which has a root that is surrounded by a bulbous enlargement composed of completely keratinized cells, preliminary to normal loss of the hair from the follicle; Telogen hair.
Color -The hue of the hair as judged either macroscopically or microscopically.
Comparative Analysis- The most common type of analysis in forensic examinations in which a questioned object (questioned source) is compared to a known (an object of known source) for the purpose of determining if the questioned and known objects have the same source, as opposed to the comparison to an archetype in which the purpose is to classify the hair characteristic variate under consideration (determine the variate class to which the hair characteristic variate belongs).
Continuous Variation- Variation where the difference between one characteristic variate and its closest neighbor in terms of similarity is virtually indiscernible. Example: A particular shade of brown hair is indistinguishable from the shade of a brown hair slightly darker or lighter, since the number of shades of brown hair is very large and the eye’s ability to distinguish shades is limited.
Convoluting Rotation- or twisting of the hair shaft, which can occur naturally or as a result of mechanical force. The hair shaft of a convoluted hair may loop or twine upon itself.
Cortex -The major portion of the hair shaft, between the cuticle and the medulla, composed of elongated and fusiform cells.
Cortical Fusi -Small, fusiform bodies within the hair shaft cortex that have the appearance of empty membranes; they may be filled with air or liquid.
Crenate -Having a rounded or scalloped margin, as is said of the distal edge of hair scales.

-An abnormal or unusual condition of the hair shaft due to a genetic disorder, disease or environmental damage. The appearance of the pigment granules when they are concentrated in a mass that has a recognizable form. “without form”; a form that does not fit into a category of a defined form pattern The active growth phase of a hair root in the hair growth cycle. The root of an anagen hair is elongated, is covered with a root sheath, and is fully pigmented. A model against which other similar objects can be compared to establish degrees of similarity or dissimilarity. Features that are the result of damage,optical distortion, or other factors; not a true feature.-Synonym for characteristic. A disruption of the hair shaft demonstrating itself as an abrupt change in direction with or without a slight twist. This feature may be due to genetic factors, or it may result from damage (i.e., hair treatments). The transitional phase of the hair root from the active growth phase (anagen) to the resting growth phase (telogen) in the hair growth cycle. The root of a catagen hair may have a club-shaped root, a sparse amount of pigment, and a dried up root sheath.Identify the variate class to which a hair characteristic belongs; scoring of a study hair through use of the archetypes in this atlas -A microscopic or macroscopic feature, attribute, or trait of a hair. The process of examining and describing the characteristics of a hair or a set of hairs. (e.g., scalp hair, dog hair) or a group of hairs defined by the presence in each hair of all the class characteristics that define the class, e.g., an East Asian heritage hair type.A characteristic shared by all members of a class. It may vary in some way from one member to the next (e.g., size, shape, color, position) but is present in each member of the class. When variation is present, the characteristic may be used as part of a set of other class characteristics also exhibiting some variation to establish a set of characteristics of which the aggregate constitutes a unique set of characteristic variates that may allow for individualization of the object bearing those characteristics. A hair which has a root that is surrounded by a bulbous enlargement composed of completely keratinized cells, preliminary to normal loss of the hair from the follicle; Telogen hair. -The hue of the hair as judged either macroscopically or microscopically. The most common type of analysis in forensic examinations in which a questioned object (questioned source) is compared to a known (an object of known source) for the purpose of determining if the questioned and known objects have the same source, as opposed to the comparison to an archetype in which the purpose is to classify the hair characteristic variate under consideration (determine the variate class to which the hair characteristic variate belongs). Variation where the difference between one characteristic variate and its closest neighbor in terms of similarity is virtually indiscernible. Example: A particular shade of brown hair is indistinguishable from the shade of a brown hair slightly darker or lighter, since the number of shades of brown hair is very large and the eye’s ability to distinguish shades is limited. or twisting of the hair shaft, which can occur naturally or as a result of mechanical force. The hair shaft of a convoluted hair may loop or twine upon itself.The major portion of the hair shaft, between the cuticle and the medulla, composed of elongated and fusiform cells. -Small, fusiform bodies within the hair shaft cortex that have the appearance of empty membranes; they may be filled with air or liquid. -Having a rounded or scalloped margin, as is said of the distal edge of hair scales.

-An abnormal or unusual condition of the hair shaft due to a genetic disorder, disease or environmental damage. The appearance of the pigment granules when they are concentrated in a mass that has a recognizable form. “without form”; a form that does not fit into a category of a defined form pattern The active growth phase of a hair root in the hair growth cycle. The root of an anagen hair is elongated, is covered with a root sheath, and is fully pigmented. A model against which other similar objects can be compared to establish degrees of similarity or dissimilarity. Features that are the result of damage,optical distortion, or other factors; not a true feature.-Synonym for characteristic. A disruption of the hair shaft demonstrating itself as an abrupt change in direction with or without a slight twist. This feature may be due to genetic factors, or it may result from damage (i.e., hair treatments). The transitional phase of the hair root from the active growth phase (anagen) to the resting growth phase (telogen) in the hair growth cycle. The root of a catagen hair may have a club-shaped root, a sparse amount of pigment, and a dried up root sheath.Identify the variate class to which a hair characteristic belongs; scoring of a study hair through use of the archetypes in this atlas -A microscopic or macroscopic feature, attribute, or trait of a hair. The process of examining and describing the characteristics of a hair or a set of hairs. (e.g., scalp hair, dog hair) or a group of hairs defined by the presence in each hair of all the class characteristics that define the class, e.g., an East Asian heritage hair type.A characteristic shared by all members of a class. It may vary in some way from one member to the next (e.g., size, shape, color, position) but is present in each member of the class. When variation is present, the characteristic may be used as part of a set of other class characteristics also exhibiting some variation to establish a set of characteristics of which the aggregate constitutes a unique set of characteristic variates that may allow for individualization of the object bearing those characteristics. A hair which has a root that is surrounded by a bulbous enlargement composed of completely keratinized cells, preliminary to normal loss of the hair from the follicle; Telogen hair. -The hue of the hair as judged either macroscopically or microscopically. The most common type of analysis in forensic examinations in which a questioned object (questioned source) is compared to a known (an object of known source) for the purpose of determining if the questioned and known objects have the same source, as opposed to the comparison to an archetype in which the purpose is to classify the hair characteristic variate under consideration (determine the variate class to which the hair characteristic variate belongs). Variation where the difference between one characteristic variate and its closest neighbor in terms of similarity is virtually indiscernible. Example: A particular shade of brown hair is indistinguishable from the shade of a brown hair slightly darker or lighter, since the number of shades of brown hair is very large and the eye’s ability to distinguish shades is limited. or twisting of the hair shaft, which can occur naturally or as a result of mechanical force. The hair shaft of a convoluted hair may loop or twine upon itself.The major portion of the hair shaft, between the cuticle and the medulla, composed of elongated and fusiform cells. -Small, fusiform bodies within the hair shaft cortex that have the appearance of empty membranes; they may be filled with air or liquid. -Having a rounded or scalloped margin, as is said of the distal edge of hair scales.

 

-An abnormal or unusual condition of the hair shaft due to a genetic disorder, disease or environmental damage. The appearance of the pigment granules when they are concentrated in a mass that has a recognizable form. “without form”; a form that does not fit into a category of a defined form pattern The active growth phase of a hair root in the hair growth cycle. The root of an anagen hair is elongated, is covered with a root sheath, and is fully pigmented. A model against which other similar objects can be compared to establish degrees of similarity or dissimilarity. Features that are the result of damage,optical distortion, or other factors; not a true feature.-Synonym for characteristic. A disruption of the hair shaft demonstrating itself as an abrupt change in direction with or without a slight twist. This feature may be due to genetic factors, or it may result from damage (i.e., hair treatments). The transitional phase of the hair root from the active growth phase (anagen) to the resting growth phase (telogen) in the hair growth cycle. The root of a catagen hair may have a club-shaped root, a sparse amount of pigment, and a dried up root sheath.Identify the variate class to which a hair characteristic belongs; scoring of a study hair through use of the archetypes in this atlas -A microscopic or macroscopic feature, attribute, or trait of a hair. The process of examining and describing the characteristics of a hair or a set of hairs. (e.g., scalp hair, dog hair) or a group of hairs defined by the presence in each hair of all the class characteristics that define the class, e.g., an East Asian heritage hair type.A characteristic shared by all members of a class. It may vary in some way from one member to the next (e.g., size, shape, color, position) but is present in each member of the class. When variation is present, the characteristic may be used as part of a set of other class characteristics also exhibiting some variation to establish a set of characteristics of which the aggregate constitutes a unique set of characteristic variates that may allow for individualization of the object bearing those characteristics. A hair which has a root that is surrounded by a bulbous enlargement composed of completely keratinized cells, preliminary to normal loss of the hair from the follicle; Telogen hair. -The hue of the hair as judged either macroscopically or microscopically. The most common type of analysis in forensic examinations in which a questioned object (questioned source) is compared to a known (an object of known source) for the purpose of determining if the questioned and known objects have the same source, as opposed to the comparison to an archetype in which the purpose is to classify the hair characteristic variate under consideration (determine the variate class to which the hair characteristic variate belongs). Variation where the difference between one characteristic variate and its closest neighbor in terms of similarity is virtually indiscernible. Example: A particular shade of brown hair is indistinguishable from the shade of a brown hair slightly darker or lighter, since the number of shades of brown hair is very large and the eye’s ability to distinguish shades is limited. or twisting of the hair shaft, which can occur naturally or as a result of mechanical force. The hair shaft of a convoluted hair may loop or twine upon itself.The major portion of the hair shaft, between the cuticle and the medulla, composed of elongated and fusiform cells. -Small, fusiform bodies within the hair shaft cortex that have the appearance of empty membranes; they may be filled with air or liquid. -Having a rounded or scalloped margin, as is said of the distal edge of hair scales.

 

Cross-section- A thin section of the hair shaft cut at right angles to the longitudinal axis.
Curl-The degree of curvature of a hair along its long axis; curliness.
Cuticle- The covering of the hair shaft, composed of overlapping scales.
Density -(Pigment) The relative abundance of pigment granules in the hair
cortex, as judged by their microscopic appearance.
Discontinuous Variation -Each variate of a characteristic has a recognizable form that is different from the other variates; i.e., each variate differs qualitatively from the others (cf. Continuous Variation).
Distribution- (Pigment) The distribution pattern of the pigment granules about the central axis of the hair shaft (Uniform, Peripheral, One-sided, Random, or Central).
Exemplar Synonym -for known (an item of known source) or a representative sample taken from the known for comparison to a Questioned item.
Feature Synonym- for characteristic.
Fusi -The spindle-shaped air or fluid-filled bodies found in some hair shafts or their flattened bodies, which have lost the air or fluid with which they were filled (also called cortical fttsi).
Fusiform -Tapering at each end; spindle-shaped.
Hair Form -The spacial configuration of a hair with respect to curliness.
Hair Type -The specific combination of genetically controlled macroscopic and microscopic characteristic variates observed in a particular hair.
Identification The process of identifying the class to which an object belongs; in some forensic disciplines, it is used in the same sense as individualization (e.g., fingerprints, firearms).
Imbricate -Having the edges overlapping in a regular pattern.
Individualization The identification of the unique source of an object. With respect to a questioned hair, identification of the individual from whom the hair originated. The individualization of human hair is rarely achievable using microscopy techniques.
Keratin Any of various sulphur-containing fibrous proteins that form the chemical basis for keratinized epidermal tissues such as hair, nails, feathers, and horns of animals.


Lice -(Plural of louse) Parasitic insects.
Those found on man include head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis), body or clothing lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), and crab lice (Phthirus pubis), which live in the pubic region, eyelashes, or eyebrows.
The eggs of the lice may be seen attached to the hair shaft.
Limited Range- A term coined by hair examiners to designate the smaller range of a variate seen in the hair from an individual as opposed to the wider range of the variate in the human population.
Longitudinal Plane- Parallel to the long axis of the hair.
Looped- A condition in which the distal edges of the cuticle scales are curved inward so that they curve or cup toward the edge of the hair shaft. Looped scales can trap air below the curved portion, giving the appearance of dark bands between the scale and the shaft.
Macroscopic- Large enough to be perceived without magnification.
Magnification Levels -(As applied to human hair examinations) Macroscopic
— Observed with the unaided eye (also referred to as “gross”); stereoscopic (low-power) — Observed with the stereoscopic microscope (usually 3x to 70x magnification), but may be slightly higher or lower; high power — Compound microscope- that may be 20x to l000x magnification; scanning electron microscope — From compound light microscope magnification up to 250,000x magnification.
Medulla -The central canal of cells of the hair shaft, which may appear black (air-ifiled cells) or translucent (fluid-ifiled cells). Pronounced either “mahdoo’-lah” or “meh-dull’-ah” as a personal preference.
Medulla Continuity -The continuous or discontinuous nature of the opaque or translucent medulla from the proximal end to the distal end of the hair shaft.
Medulla Opacity -The appearance of the medulla as being either opaque or translucent when viewed with transmitted light in the compound light microscope.
Melanin -Brown pigments occurring in plants and animals; the pigment in human hair that provides the brown to black color of the hair.
Microscopic- Too small to be perceived by the unaided eye but large enough to be studied under a microscope; examination under the microscope (same as microscopical).




Force: energy or an action that causes motion, change in motion or prevents motion.
Geometric shapes: a straight or curved in closed outline.
Circle-a geometric closed curved and shape bound by a circumference and having equal radii from a center point of origin.
Oval- a geometric curved shape bound by a circumference, having unequal radii from a point of origin.
Oblong-and elongation eight curvature shape with parallel “C” lines, and that convex and concave end
Square-a geometric shape with four right angles and two sets of parallel sides. Rectangle-a four sided geometric shape with two sets of parallel sides.
Trapezoid-a geometric shape with two unequal, parallel sides and two equal, nonparallel sides.
Triangle-a free sided shape.
Diamond-two equal triangles.
Hexagon- a six sided shape.
Graduated texture: texture in which the interior is smooth and the ends in the exterior appear stacked upon one another.
High: Above 60°, below 90°
Indentation: a hollow area where space.
In direct technique: a setting technique used for expanding an oval.
Inner and outer circle: a setting technique used for expanding a circle.
Layered Texture: activated texture in which the ends of the hair or most invisible. Uniform layering consists of equal length.
Line of inclination: the line created between the design line in natural fall projection and the next projected section. A measure of the degree of expansion in a graduated form.
Low: Above 0°, below 30
increase layering: a progression of lengths. Mass: The quantity of matter in any given body.

Monilethrix -A hair disorder that results in periodic nodes along the length of the hair with intervening, tapering constrictions that are not medullated.
Ovoid Bodies -Oval-shaped pigmented bodies in the hair cortex.
Papilla-A small projection at the base of the hair follicle composed of connective tissue.
Parfocal- A microscope objective system designed to have similar focal dis— tances so that when the objective turret is rotated to another objective, the
object in view remains in focus.
Pill Annulati -A hair disorder that results in ringed or banded hair; alternating bright and dark bands in the hair shaft.
Pill Torti -A hair disorder demonstrated by a hair that is flattened and twisted through 180 degrees on its axis. It is found at irregular intervals along the shaft.
Planes Longitudinal — Plane parallel to the long axis of the hair; Transverse— Plane parallel to the short axis of the hair.
Questioned In forensic science, an item or object that has a questioned or unknown source.
Range Limits -The upper and lower limits that describe the variation of a hair characteristic within a single hair, within the hairs of an individual’s scalp, within the hairs of an unknown specimen, or within a given population of individuals.
Reference Standard- A hair standard in a reference collection to be used as a comparison standard in hair research.
Regions of the hair:
Proximal — Area nearest the hair root.
Distal — Area farthest from the hair root.
Medial — Area between the proximal and distal areas of the hair shaft.
Note: These terms refer to the areas of a hair shaft as it exists, since cutting the hair results in a shift of the distal area.
Scales- The keratinized scale-like covering of the hair; cuticle.
Serrate- Having the appearance of the teeth of a saw; jagged.
Shade -Degree of darkness of a color.

Medium: Above 30, below 60 (45° is standard)
Multiple Design Lines: Two or more stationary design lines used with a conversion layering technique to achieve increase-layered texture.
Natural Fall & natural distribution: the direction hair assumes as it grows out from the scalp. The natural position the hair assumes due to gravitational pull.
Natural Fall: The position the hair assumes due to gravitational pull. This may be 0° in some areas of the head.
Nonparallel Sculpting: Angling your fingers in any direction other than parallel to your base parting while sculpting.
Normal Projection: Hair held uniformly at 90° in relation to the position of the head.
Normal projection views are used to analyze the structure of a sculpture. It is also the projection angle at which uniform layering is performed.
Oblate: having more width then length.
One-Finger Projection: A projection angle equal to the width of one finger.
One Length: the perimeter and the interior are the same length; all of the interior has grown to meet the perimeter.
Overlap: a series of partings in which each successive length is sculpted longer than the previous one. Shortest lengths usually occur at the hairline. Also called under cut.
Parallel: A line, or point on a line, that maintains an equal distance from another line or point.
Parallel Sculpting: A technique in which a section is sculpted parallel to its base parting.
Perimeter: Circumference, border or outer boundary; the hair around the hairline. The outer edge of a haircut.
Perm Patterns:
Alternating oblongs-a combination of two or more oblongs with alternating forces are directions creating a wave pattern.
Interlocking oblongs-alternating oblongs with interlocking bases for better or blending between oblongs.
Bricklay-a staggered pattern of bases with initiate, which is used to avoid split heads in a finished design. Usually performed using the one- two method of application.
C
ontour pattern-a wrapping pattern that positions perm tools at a diagonal at the sides to conform to the curve of the head.
Expanded circle-a wrapping pattern that feature her sides sections that are directed a way from the face and a large curvature movement.
Projection-a wrapping pattern that positions texture on the hair ends, producing a combination of permed and un- permed lengths. Down projection-a damn word wrapping pattern that reduces the shrinkage of lengths by increasing the proportion of hair left straight at the perimeter. Up projection-and upward wrapping pattern that positions texture to create stacked effect along the angle of graduation. This pattern results in a contrasting straight interior with an expanded parameter.
Rectangle pattern: a wrapping pattern that is composed mainly of rectangle shapes. The rectangle can be wrapped towards or away from the face. The sides and back sections are directed downward.
Perpendicular distribution: the direction hair assumes when it is combed at a 90° angle from its base parting.
Pivotal Parting: A parting pattern that radiates from a central point and conforms to the curve of the head; allows easy sculpting around the crown; creates triangular sections.
Plane: A surface containing every line connecting any two points lying within it; any flat or level surface.
Plane Sculpting: the angle at which the hair is held while sculpting.
Point: a dot or mark.
Point of origin: the place where motion begins; the beginning of a design.
Pressure Sculpting: A sculpting technique in which tension is used on wet hair to produce shorter lengths in the dry result.
Progression: a succession of lines, shapes, space, etc. that increases or decreases by proportional steps.
Project: To extend forward or out. Projection angle: The angle the hair is held in relation to the curve of the head while sculpting. Also called elevation.
Prolate: having more length, then width.
Proportion: The relationship between things or parts of things in respect to comparative magnitude, quantity or degree.
Qualitative Analysis: To list all the parts of a whole.
Quantitative Analysis: Determining the amount of each part and the proportion of the parts to the whole.
Rectilinear: characterized by straight lines.
Ridge Line: The line that divides two textures in graduated forms.
Rhythm: repetition or progression of shapes, lines or forms.
Scaling: carving of shapes in the proper, predetermined size and proportion.
Scrunching: of finishing technique in which the hair lengths are gently squeezed as the hair is dried with a diffuse.
Shape: a two dimensional outline of form as seen in its silhouette or outer boundary.
Skip wave: to alternating oblongs in which one oblong remains molded, and the other oblong is set.Spheroid: having similar length & width.
Shifted Distribution: the direction hair assumes when it is come out of the natural distribution in any direction, but perpendicular to its base line.
Slice: a straight parting selected for dimensional haircoloring.
Slide cutting: a backhand Shearer stroke that removes length while tapering a form line. Also called slithering.
Solid Texture: smooth texture created by lengths, which fall to the same level. Stationary design line: a consistent stable design line to which lengths are directed in an increase layered form.
Structure: the arrangement of lengths. Across the curve of the head.
Structure graphic: a constant stable design line to which lengths are directed in an increase layered of form . A diagram that represents the proportional relationships of lengths with in a sculpture as they occur across the curve of the head. This graphic serves as a blueprint for the final cut.
Symmetrical: a balance or harmonious arrangement.

Spectrum -The range of values exhibited collectively by all the individuals in a population with regard to a specific characteristic; the range of the variates of a hair characteristic in a population.
Telogen -The end phase of the hair growth cycle during which the hair root becomes a club root and the hair eventually falls out of the follicle. The root of a telogen hair is club-shaped, with little or no adhering root sheath, and lacks pigment.
Translucent -Transmitting light but causing sufficient diffusion to allow the perception of an image, as is said of the appearance of a medulla that has cells that are fluid-filled rather than air-ifiled.
Transverse Plane -Parallel to the short axis of the hair; plane perpendicular to the long axis of the hair.
Tricho- A prefix denoting relationship to hair.
Trichochromogenic- Giving color to the hair.
Trichoclasis -“Greenstick” fracture of the hair shaft. A transverse fracture of the shaft, which is splinted partly or wholly by intact cuticle.
Trichology -The sum of what is known regarding the hair; the scientific study of hair.
Trichonodosis -A condition characterized by apparent or actual knotting of the hair. It is uncommon but not rare in some individuals of African ancestry or others with tightly curled hair.
Trichoptiosis A longitudinal splitting or fraying of the hair shaft. It commonly occurs at the distal end and is often referred to as “split ends.”
Trichorrhexis -A condition in which the hair breaks off.
Trichorrhexis Invaginata- A hair disorder in which the hair has indented and the shaft has folded into itself, having the appearance of a ball and socket; “Bamboo hair?’
Trichorrhexis Nodosa- A condition that appears along the hair shaft as small, beaded swellings associated with a loss of cuticle. The expanded areas are composed of frayed cortical fibers through which the hair readily fractures.
Trichoschisis- A clean, transverse fracture across the hair shaft through cuticle and cortex, as is associated with a localized absence of cuticle cells.
Trichosiderin -Formerly, an iron-containing pigment found in normal human red hair. It is now thought to be fragments of the pigment phaeomelanin.
Undullating Macroscopic — A smooth wave-like hair form (as opposed to the abrupt form of hair buckling). Microscopic Refers to a wavy form seen microscopically which is accompanied with true variations in hair shaft diameter.
Variate -The descriptor for any of the various forms of each macroscopic or microscopic characteristic observed in human hair. The variate may be continuous, discontinuous, or a measured value.
Variate Class Limit The upper or lower limit of a continuous variate class.
For variates with two classes, the upper limit of the lower class and the lower
limit of the upper class is the same, i.e., divides the population of continuous variates into two classes.
Vellus- Fine body hair that is present only until puberty.
Weathering -The effect of the environment on the hair shaft; wear and tear that causes damage to the cuticle and cortex.

Scaling: carving of shapes in the proper, predetermined size and proportion.
Scrunching: of finishing technique in which the hair lengths are gently squeezed as the hair is dried with a diffuse.
Shape: a two dimensional outline of form as seen in its silhouette or outer boundary.
Skip wave: to alternating oblongs in which one oblong remains molded, and the other oblong is set.Spheroid: having similar length & width.
Shifted Distribution: the direction hair assumes when it is come out of the natural distribution in any direction, but perpendicular to its base line.
Slice: a straight parting selected for dimensional haircoloring.
Slide cutting: a backhand Shearer stroke that removes length while tapering a form line. Also called slithering.
Solid Texture: smooth texture created by lengths, which fall to the same level. Stationary design line: a consistent stable design line to which lengths are directed in an increase layered form.
Structure: the arrangement of lengths. Across the curve of the head.
Structure graphic: a constant stable design line to which lengths are directed in an increase layered of form . A diagram that represents the proportional relationships of lengths with in a sculpture as they occur across the curve of the head. This graphic serves as a blueprint for the final cut.
Symmetrical: a balance or harmonious arrangement.
Texture: the quality of a surface. An activated surface shows highly visible and rough texture. An un-activated surface is smooth.
Texture character: Angular-had the day angle or angled texture pattern curvilinear-formed, found or characterized by curved lines, spirals, curls or waves.
Texturizing: special effect sculpting that cuts movement, volume and expansion into a form.
Thermal styling: using tools that require heat to design the hair, curling irons, hot rollers, and flatirons.
Three dimensional : having length, width and depth.
Two Dimensional: having length and width; flat.
Un-activated: a smooth the surface or a solid form.
Volume: mass or fullness in a design. The strength of peroxide.
Wave: two connecting oblong shapes that alternate in direction creating an “S”shape pattern.
Weave Cutting: a form of texturizing that requires snipping into lengths at alternating intervals to create shorter lengths with in a form.
Weight: the length concentration in a hair design.
Weaving technique: a zigzag parting used to divide a base. It is usually done between tools to encourage better blending. It is also used to blend permed areas of a design with areas that are left natural.
Wrapping angle: the angle at which the hair is held would wrapping the tool to the base. Wrapping techniques: compression-a wrapping technique that positions hair between sections of the told to create an impression on the hair. Spiral-ends to base or base to ends wrapping technique that positions revolutions of hair next to each other to create an elongated effect. Overlapping-a wrapping technique in which the hair overlaps itself as it is wrapped from ends to base.
Zero Projection: hair held as close to the head as possible; also called no projection.
Zero: Flat to the surface of the head. Characterized by straight lines; adaptable to men because are considered more masculine.





 

 

 

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